The history of sandals


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A historical review of the humble sandal

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  • The origin of thongs is pre-history and extends long before today’s plastic plungers. Sandals have beautified feet since the beginning of civilization and were worn to adorn, complement status, and demonstrate station. Unlike ‘daggy thongs,’ sandals were restricted to only the few and have been around for at least 10,000 years. They coincide with the Neolithic Age (or New Stone Age) and although speculative footprints indicate a presence before this, absence of archeological evidence makes it impossible to date when shoes started to be worn. The wide geographical locations (including America, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia) however support footwear was a spontaneous innovation made and from available resources and contemporary with the development of basketry. For your delectation I intend to outline a brief history of sandals and how, in the spirit of zeitgeist, they reflect the latest technology and influence historical events.
  • The oldest known shoes were discovered in Fort Rock Cave, Oregon (1938). Made from woven sagebrush bark these have been radio-carbon dated toat least, 10,000 years old. Asimple platform (made from woven fabric) with toe and heel attachments (thongs) woven from rope. Longer than the foot, the front part was folded in a pocket to protect the toes and the sandalstrapped to the foot with a thong. Rabbit fur and pine needles were sometimes added for comfort. More recent finds dated to 7,500-year-old demonstrate an increase range of styles including pointed and rounded toes with many incorporating decorative flourishes. Many prehistoric shoes had obvious signs of repair.
  • The first inclusion of animal hides dates to 6500 years ago with the discovery of the Iceman. Many believe skins held magical properties to our ancestors and were worn to capture admirable elements such as swiftness and bravery. Clothing continued to distinguish rank and status.
  • Examples of early Australian sandals are rare not least because few indigenous tribes were thought to wear them. Where examples do exist, (some tribes in the Northern Territory and adjoining desert country) these appear to be of similar style to New Stone Age sandals. Here are oval shaped interliniaslippers (Kurdaitcha) woven from emu feathers, human hair and blood. Worn by tribal executioners of the Arrernte(əraɳɖa]) people from Alice Springs.
  • Footwear became more evident by the beginning of the Cradle of Civilization (Sumeria, circa 4th millennium BCE). Still reserved for the privileged, Sumerians were noted artisans and clothing was made from animal skins. Sandals with a turned up toe (circa 3000 BCE) were worn by the aristocracy with the earliest known depictions seen on the Assyrian, Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (circa 841 BCE). Bending back toes was thought to be a practical innovation to assist with walking. Other styles included elevated sandals (as in wedged heels) crafted in fabric or soft leather and adorned with jewelry. The seafaring Phoenicians (1550 BCE to 300 BCE) ensured fashionable dyed footwear spread throughout the known world. (i.e. Ancient Egypt (3200 BCE – 343 BCE), India (2800 BCE - 1500 BCE) and China). Babylonians (1696 – 1654 BCE) preferred perfumed sandals made from fine kid leathers, and dyed red. Footwear was also decorated with trinkets and bling. The Persians (600BCE) wore exotic wooden platform sandals with a toe separator between the first and second toe. Sandals were intricately inlaid with pearl and other semi precious stones and commonly worn in bath houses and harems. Persian priests wore well crafted sandals and Persian soldiers wore sandals with brass leg protectors (greaves). it is thought the armies of Alexander the Great (356 - 323 BCE) who conquered half the world, went barefoot. During this time shoes were removed in the presence of superiors and thought to be unclean (association with animals). They also represented the material world and were removed on holy ground.
  • Ancient Greeks adapted footwear for every type of activity, with emphasis on beauty, elegance, and refinement. Sandals were extravagantly decorated with rich ornamentation although sumptuary laws prevented Greek women from wearing more than three articles of clothing and hence most went barefoot although Aphrodite was often depicted naked except for a pair of sandals.Height and colour remained clear indications of social class with strap and thong arrangements important to station. Courtesans wore soft leather footwear dyed white, green, lemon or yellow and betrothed girls and young brides wore sandals made from dyed white leather. By the time of Homer (1000-700 BCE), theKrepis (soldier’s shoe) was a thong with ankle strapping and a tongue (or linula over the instep). These were adapted for woman and lady's Krepis were brightly coloured, anklet sandal often preferred by women of ill repute (or salmakides). Early sexworkers caught the attention of their client with a "clack" sound made when wooden thongs hit the street cobbles. Some adopted the Mediterranean custom of carving “Follow Me,” on the undersurface of the soles. Philosophers and comic actors wore baxeae, i.e. sandals made from willow leaves, twigs, or fibres. Tragic actors, horsemen, hunters, and men of rank and authority were platform sandals (Kothormos /cothurnus) made with layers of cork. In Greek mythology sandals had significance and were generally thought to separate mortals from the Underworld (Hell). Consequently shoe adornments with amulets or cosmetikos, became popular. A carved tongue or lingual (free spirit), visibly confirmed a free person or citizen.
  • The earliest depiction of Egyptian sandals datesto 5000 ya. (King Narmer is seen smitiing his enemies barefoot but standing behind him is his footman carrying his thongs). Sandal making had become well established and was depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire (1550-c. 1292 BC)) at the Necropolis of Thebes. The process was broken into different components and sandals had a thicker outsole and thinner insole made from softer leather. Stitched with waxed threads specific tools were developed. Artisans tanned animal hides with vegetable and mineral oils turning them white before dying them in rich colours. The process of making sumptuous costume remained costly ensuring shoes were the preserve of the privileged. Sandals made from braided papyrus were worn by ordinary people.
  • Pharaoh wore peaked toed sandals similar to but more ostentatious the Assyrians (1200 BCE). By 1300 BCE, shoes became more common and going bare foot was considered déclassé. The Egyptians were the first to modified shoe styles to different occupations e.g. butchers. By 5th c BCE, Egyptian priests were required to wear papyrus sandals. Like other from antiquity Egyptians drew faces of their enemies on their sandals so they could stand on them.
  • Sandals were often left in tombs and some were unworn with others with everyday wear. In the tomb of the boy king, Tutankhamen (1292 BC) a large collection of shoes and sandals were found. These were made from a variety of materials and included gold, vegetable fibre, birch bark, leather, all decorated with gemstones. Some sandals had obvious alterations thought to accommodate Tutankhamen’s foot deformities. In other tombs such as the tradesmen tombs at Deir-el-Medineh (19th Dynasty 1298 to 1187 BCE), there were several pairs of funereal sandals made from glass and faience (earthenware). Generally Queens of the Nile were admired for their bejeweled footwear. The section of the sandal where toe thongs were attached was called 'nkh”. Many experts believe the Ankh (symbol for life) represents a flattened thong.
  • There are no surviving artifacts or descriptions of Judean shoes from the period of the early Bible. Hebrews tanned animal hides taught to them by their Egyptian captors (circa 13th century BCE). They took this trade with them to the Promised Land and perhaps the first actual shoe miracle was the Hebrew tribes survived the long journey wearing shoes that never wore out."And I have led you forty years in the wilderness. Your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot." (Deut. 29:5)It is thought Biblical sandals were either made of leather or wooden footboards held to the foot with finer leather thongs. Traditional Jewish laws; or Torah, [Laws of Moses; and the ShulchanAruch, (Code of Jewish law)] regulated the life including how to put on and take off sandals, i.e. right first and always tied from the left. Clothing became a clear indication of identity and became a conscious mark of reverence.
  • Shoes became associated with sensuousness, comfort, luxury and pleasure and the thought of wearing shabby or worn out shoes was absurd. By the8th century BCE elders of Jerusalem were concerned at young Hebrew women many of whom were wearing elevated sandals, decorated with serpents, (Isaiah 3 16-20). Often a sweet-heart's name and likeness was engraved on a metal plate was placed under the heel, so that it left an imprint on the ground wherever they went.“Moreover, the LORD said, “Because the daughters of Zion are proud and walk with heads held high and seductive eyes, And go along with mincing steps And tinkle the bangles on their feet, Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs, And the LORD will make their foreheads bare.” (Isaiah 3 16-20).In the Book of Judith, (circa 12 c BCE) she meets and bowls over the revered Assyrian general, Holofernes. So impressed is he with her beauty and in particular the richness of her feet and sandals which “ravished his eyes," he plans to seduce her. The tables are turned when Judith waits for him to fall into a drunken sleep and cuts his head off with his own sword. Subsequently her sexualized femininity combined with masculine aggression inspired many artists to paint her. The lyric in the Song of Songs (circa 900 BCE) confirms sandals were worn by the high born. "How beautiful your sandaled feet, O prince's daughter! Your graceful legs are like jewels, the work of a craftsman's hands.” (Song of Songs 7:1).
  • The Holy Prophet, Muhammad(570 – 632) regarded shoes as impure and commanded the faithful remove all dirt from their sandals prior to praying. In pragmatic style it became easier to remove shoes. Frequent prayer (and shoe removal) ensured babouche slippers became the preferred footwear of Muslims. Because the Moorish Empire dwarfed the Roman Empire and chronologically flowed into the Middle Ages their influence on costume was unsurpassed. Soft and sumptuous Moroccan leathers made Cordova in Spain the centre for quality leather which began to influence the costume of the occidental courts.
  • Greece was conquered in 146 BCE but Greek styles continued to influence Roman clothing. After the Bronze Age Etruscans (800 – 264 BCE), the Romans stiffened their sandals with tacks to secure the sole to the upper. The more robust footwear was further strengthened with hobnails (or clavata). These were adapted by the army and Caligula was worn by all ranks up to and including, centurions. Foot soldiers could travel greater distances which is one credible reason why the Roman Empire grew so big. The margins were so far apart from the capital supply from Mother Rome was impractical and local craftsmen were trained in the art of Roman sandal making. Provincial footwear styles, like Galoshes from Gaul were adapted. Many styles of footwear were developed and shoes with a tongue (linula) were restricted to free citizens of Rome.Colour continued to distinguish social status with red the prerogative of the Emperor. Julius Caesar reserved red and purple for himself and his sons. During the luxurious days of the late Roman Empire, sandals were decorated with gold and precious stones. Returning heroes replaced bronze nails, with gold or silver tacks. When fancy footwear became too ostentatious laws were passed to ban expensive bling
  • Claudius II /Nero (AD 37-68) wore silver soled shoes and his wife Poppaea, had sandals made from poured gold with straps encrusted with rare stones. Nero’s indulgencies brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. To save the day it was decreed all gold and silver coins be returned to the treasury to be replaced with base metal currency. Citizens began hoarding and shoemakers were quick to cash in offering footwear for real money. Shoe making became clandestine with expensive footwear encrusted with diamonds and precious metals sold under the counter and often at night. Many early Christian converts became sandal makers earning their living at night and spreading the gospels during the day. Caches of Roman sandals found in the UK reveal people of two millennium past had the same feet and foot problems as we do, today.
  • Emperor Heliogabalus (AD 218-222) liked his shoes decorated with diamonds and other precious stones engraved by the finest artists. He took great exception to patricians wearing ornamented shoes and tried unsuccessfully to stop the fashion. Emperor LuciusDomitiusAurelianus (AD 270 - 275) was more concerned about men’s shoes and forbade them from wearing red, yellow and green shoes. He did however relent and allowed patricians to choose materials and colours freely.
  • By the time of the New Testament, walking was the primary means of travel and the Disciples were encouraged to protect their feet when called upon to spread the gospel. They were cautioned against wearing anything other than humble sandals, however lest they offended potential converts. "I am sending you like lambs among wolves. Take neither purse nor pack, nor sandals." (Luke 10:1-16).Priests occupied an important position in ancient societies and performed their offices, barefoot. However the hierarchy of the newly formed church indulged themselves in sumptuous dress. Under "Sovereign's law," promulgated by Charlemagne (742-814 AD), clerics were required to wear sandals when celebrating mass. By the Middle Ages, priests and Franciscan monks wore wooden sandals in disregard to material luxury. During pilgrimages many went barefoot, or put a stone in their shoe to do penance for their sins. Clerics wore simple sandals devoid of fashion and symbolism. These were an outward and visible sign of their inner humility and purity.
  • After the fall of the Roman Empire sandal making was almost lost to Europe and kept alive only with pockets of craftsmen scattered on the perimeters of the old Empire. During the Middle Ages in Occidental Society sandals were rarely worn but during the 16c century they made an appearance as disguised orthopaedic sandals around the time of Henry VIII. A century later as shoes became more ornate then the wooden sandals were modified as overshoes or pattens.
  • It is impossible to know the true origins of shoes because costume exchange was common place along the Spice and Silk routes. Archetypal sandals of India and the Far East were made of straw. but Mendicants (beggars), holy men (sadhu) and gurus wore paduka (wooden sandals) which stood off the ground with two narrow stilts. Paduka (circa 3000 BCE), were cut roughly in the shape of a footprint (or fish as the symbol of fertility) and held next to the foot with a stub (knob) between the big and second toes. Finer toe knob sandals were worn by the rich and made from teak, ebony and sandalwood. These were intricately inlaid with ivory or wire. Sometimes bells adorned the sandals of a bride formed part of a bride's trousseau.A Brahmin prayer."Forgive me Mother Earth the sin of injury, the violence I do, by placing my feet upon you this morning." In rural areas handcrafted sandals (Chappals) were made from processed leather (buffalo, goat or cow) from circa 3000 BCE, but after the Muslim conquest of India in the 11c, the babouche (slippers) with turned up toes became prevalent.
  • In Japan by the 1st century, Zori (Tatami Sandals), or flat bottomed sandals, were made of straw with a leather thong between the first and second toes. These were worn with tabi, a white cotton foot covering (like socks) with a split toe, between the big toe and the other four toes for the sandal thong. Tabi were the only foot coverings traditionally permitted on the tatami mat-covered floors inside Japanese houses. Double-soled Zori , (symbolic of the impending union) were often given as an engagement gifts from future groom to his bride. By the 17th century during the Edo period (1603-1867), getas became fashionable. These were wooden (cryptomeria) platforms sandal held to the feet with a flexible thong (sometimes rope or a black velveteen fabric) and worn with a woven tatami insole for extra comfort. Getas are worn barefoot and were produced during the Meiji period (1868-1912) which made them more economically accessible to everyone. Lacquer was used to decorate them.
  • During the feudal era of Japan (12th and 19th centuries), samurai class and foot soldiers (ashigaru) wore Waraji. The sole of the Waraji (Japan) was woven and tied according to status. Replace pairs were carried around their waist and the superstitious left straw sandals as an offering in prayer for safety before starting a long journey.
  • In the Far East, (China, Japan, and Korea) peasant sandals were made of woven rice straw. Chinese sandals were functional and often embellished with knotting but by comparison to Korean straw sandals (Jipsin), fairly crude. Other parts of the Far East wore variations on the wooden thong and these are considered unique to these regions. In Singapore the thong attachment is a strap across the top of the foot which follows the metatarsal heads. Known as the Singapore Slide and the design later became incorporated into the Scholl Exercise Sandal. In the Philippines the wooden platform were decorated with intricate and ornate carvings. During the Second World War US troops posted to the Pacific took wooden thongs home as souvenirs and many believe this was why sandals became popular in the US after the war. Lohan is another Chinese name for an Arhat. An Arhat is a Buddhist who has attained Nirvana through rigorous discipline and ascetic practices. These traditional style Lohan sandals were originally made from straw which included even the bottom of the soles. Straw was used not only because it was an easy to find material, but it also had desirable qualities like softness, was cool on a hot day and very light in weight. The monks wore them for long distance travel or to speed along on quick walk. The Lohan sandals were especially favored in the mountain areas for martial art training.In more recent times, straw was replaced by fabric and a rubber sole, but the style remains similar in appearance and it’s still a comfortable wearing sandal. It is the best work-out shoe for the hot summer and it fits well with your Shaolin monk’s uniform.These sandals are not made for kicking bags as they will wear out prematurely. Black color is the real martial arts favored color.
  • Espadrilles (made from espardeña or esparto grass) were initially confined to Southern France, Spain and Portugal. But by the 15th century the Conquistadors took them to South America there they became incorporated with local native craft and remnants are still seen in the Havaiana (Brazil) and Huaraches (Columbia and Mexico). After the invention of vulcanized rubber by Charles Goodyear (1844), rubber soled thongs began to appear. Sandal made with old tyres became popular in the 30s and both espadrilles and huarache sandals were especially favoured by bohemians and surfers in North America.  
  • Sandals made a remarkable fashion comeback in the early 20th Century. The popularity of silent cinema ensured millions saw the new biblical epics from Hollywood. Keen to have authentic costume master shoe makers like Salvatore Ferragamo made thousands of sandals for the cast. The absence of actual historical examples meant designs were based on Victorian theatrical designs. Much were inaccurate but when more and more leading actresses wanted to wear their ‘biblical sandals’ off set, their fans were keen to be seen in the same trendy sandals. The trend increased as hemlines rose and feet became sexy. Ferragamo introduced the wedge heel and metal arch supports to allow heeled shoes to be made without toe caps. The Peekaboo style (or toe cleavage) was all the rage with the introduction of colourful nail varnish.
  • By the talkies heeled sandals were synonymous with pin up girls. Heeled sandals did for women what the cowboy did for men. At a glance you knew who was the Belle form the Jezebel. Wartime shortages saw designers experiment with non-traditional materials coming up with many innovations including cork wedges and bikini sandals with plastic thongs. By the early fifties, the introduction of the stiletto meant no fashion conscious female foot could go without a pair of back less sandals exposing more foot flesh than had ever been seen. Thongs became the string bikini of the shoe world. After the Second World War the new plastics industry was used to build up the Asian economies. By the fifties new molding techniques for rubber and plastic were introduced in Taiwan and elsewhere which allowed cheaper shoes to be turned out in their millions. The introduction of the package tour to Mediterranean resorts in the 60s meant Europeans needed appropriate footwear and by the fifties the developing plastic industry took the simple thong design and mass produced them. Now every suitcase contained a pair of flip flops.
  •  In Australia thongs are not indigenous nor were they given as prison issue to the early settlers. They are totally unsuited to the Bush or Goldfields, and unlikely to have been attractive to a barefoot culture which prevailed for decades. So where did they come from? The 1956, the Melbourne Olympics were the first to be televised and the global village caught sight of the Japanese swimmers wearing getas (traditional sandals). John Cowie was a Hong Kong based shoe manufacturer who took advantage of the slip-on sandals and started to mass produce plastic thongs. In turn New Zealander, Maurice Yock took the idea to New Zealand and patented rubber thongs calling them Jandals (a combination of Japan and Sandal) in 1957. New Zealand sales rocketed and soon Australians wanted to wear the casual sandals they thought they had seen on the Melbourne Olympics. The normal construction of the plastic thong usually has the thong attachment riveted to the plastic base and this is called a 'single plugger' thong. Due to a fault in the production a double rivet was made and the thongs were christened "double pluggers." Thong are left over footsoles.They are a part of their owners,More human and personalThan shirts or underpants.Thongs know the feel of the ground:They are like people’s footprints left lying around. Colin Thiele
  • What have Terrorism, Vegetarianism and Global Warming all got in common?The fearof terrorism and need for greater security of a traveling public has necessitated removing shoes at security check points. No self respecting fashionista would want to divest their shoes in public when a casual slip on and slip off would do, hence casual footwear has become a fashion trend in the 21st Century. At the same time sales in thongs, flip flops, and havainashave blossomed fuelled principally by the heat wave many parts of the globe are now experiencing. New polymers offering incredible comfort and support have been injected to make the humble thong top gun in new millennium footwear sufficiently we could climb the Eiger in a pair of thongs and 10 thousand years after they were first worn.
  • The history of sandals

    1. 1. Cameron Kippen
    2. 2. Sage bush sandals 8000 BCE A simple platform with toe and heel attachments (thongs) woven from rope.
    3. 3. The Iceman circa 6500 years ago Animal skins were thought to hold magical properties .Clothing continued to distinguish rank and status.
    4. 4. Interlinia slippers Some tribes in the Northern Territory and adjoining desert country wore sandals similar in style to New Stone Age sandals.
    5. 5. 4th – 1st Millennium BCE
    6. 6. 8th century BCE – 1st century AD Krepis Kothornus
    7. 7. 3150 BCE – 30 BCE
    8. 8. The section of the sandal where toe thongse attached was called 'nkh”. Many experts believe the Ankh (symbol for life) represents a flattened thong.
    9. 9.  "And I have led you forty years in the wilderness. Your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot."  (Deut. 29:5)
    10. 10. “Because the daughters of Zion are proud and walk with heads held high and seductive eyes, And go along with mincing Steps. And tinkle the bangles on their feet, Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs, And the LORD will make their foreheads bare.” (Isaiah 3 16-20)
    11. 11. Circa 570 – 632 AD
    12. 12. 27 BC–AD 476/1453 Caligula (AD 12 – AD 41),
    13. 13. Nero (AD 37 – 68), St Crispin and Saint Crispinian
    14. 14. Emperor Heliogabalus (AD 218-222) Emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (AD 270 - 275)
    15. 15. "I am sending you like lambs among wolves. Take neither purse nor pack, nor sandals." (Luke 10:1-16). Sovereign's Law
    16. 16. Duck Bill Sandals circa 16c Pattens overshoes circa18c
    17. 17. Paduka Chappels
    18. 18. Zori Getas
    19. 19. Waraji
    20. 20. Jispin - Korea
    21. 21. Espadrilles Huaraches Columbia and Mexico
    22. 22. Salvatore Ferragamo Biblical Epics
    23. 23. Jandals Thongs
    24. 24. WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of Cameron Kippen pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice Copyright Regulations 1969