Materials For Writing In Efl


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I made this presentation as part of a M.A. course entitled Material development in second/foreign language teaching, taught by professor Rubena St. Louis.

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Materials For Writing In Efl

  1. 1. Materials for Writing in EFL/ESL by Carlos A. Mayora March 2009
  2. 2. Defining Writing Stages Strategies Cyclical process Audience Reader- writer connections Cohesion Coherence Syntax Lexis Mechanics based on Kroll, 2001; Nunan, 1999; Kern, 2000 Writing Generation of meaning Cognitive Linguistic Discursive Social
  3. 3. The Process Generating Translating Reviewing Planning Organizing Goal setting Actual Writing Editing Revising Adapted from Flower & Hayes, 1981
  4. 4. Approaches to Teaching Writing Product-oriented Process Genre-based See Nunan, 1999 and Kern, 2000
  5. 5. The Product-oriented Approach Writing Generation of meaning Linguistic Following models Prescriptivism Form over meaning Writing as a one-shot linear skill
  6. 6. The Process Approach Writing Generation of meaning Cognitive Linguistic Social Generation of ideas Creativity Peer-edition Edition Fluency Development of voice Drafting Negotiation of meaning
  7. 7. Genre-based Approach Writing Generation of meaning Cognitive Linguistic Discursive Social Move awareness Awareness of audience’s needs and expectations Genre analysis Emphasis on discourse Text analysis
  8. 8. Materials to Teach Writing Writing as a means Writing as an end Ur, 1994 Through writing, students show their knowledge or mastery of a given linguistic item(s) Students read, speak, listen to get to produce original texts (i.e. create their own meanings), with a purpose and audience un mind
  9. 9. Guidelines <ul><li>take into account students’ profile (age, level, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>consider the context and goals of writing instruction (EAP vs. English for general purposes); </li></ul><ul><li>create impact, be relevant, interesting, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>embed writing into a whole lesson; </li></ul><ul><li>integrate writing to other skills; </li></ul><ul><li>have clear instructions; </li></ul><ul><li>set achievable goals; </li></ul>Materials for teaching writing should….
  10. 10. Guidelines <ul><li>acknowledge the stages of writing; </li></ul><ul><li>provide a situation for writing as realistic as possible; </li></ul><ul><li>raise awareness of audience (if possible, provide opportunities for products to be exposed to a wider audience); </li></ul><ul><li>provide input and activities for the generation stage (pre-writing); </li></ul><ul><li>allow learners to write and re-write; </li></ul><ul><li>guide the revising and editing stages; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage peer-reviewing and editing; </li></ul>Materials for teaching writing should….
  11. 11. Tools and other Tips <ul><li>Weblogs, wikies, discussion forums all give learners the opportunity to experience writing beyond the classroom for a real purpose and a wider audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Give texts to your learners, not as models to imitate, but as a sources to take information from. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing is mostly linked, yet not exclusively, to reading. Give reading/listening-to-write tasks when possible. </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Flower, L. & Hayes, J. (1981) A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication 32,4, 728 - 750 </li></ul><ul><li>Kern, R. (2000) Literacy and language teaching . Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Kroll, B. (2001) Considerations for teaching an ESL/EFL writing course. In Celce-Murcia, M. (ed) Teaching English as a second or foreign language 3rd edition. (219 – 232). Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Nunan, D. (1999) Second language teaching & learning . Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ur, P. (1994) A course in language teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul>____________