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Environmental Metrology (Narrated)
 

Environmental Metrology (Narrated)

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Metrology is the scientific study of weights and measures. Environmental metrology is the science of using instruments to measure the world around us all. After listening to the presentation, you may ...

Metrology is the scientific study of weights and measures. Environmental metrology is the science of using instruments to measure the world around us all. After listening to the presentation, you may continue to click on the remaining slides.

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    Environmental Metrology (Narrated) Environmental Metrology (Narrated) Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Environmental Metrology
      • International prototype of the kilogram
      • Manufactured in the 1880’s.
      • Alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium in a cylinder.
      • Four of the six official copies date from the 1880’s.
      • More than 80 copies as 1kg national prototypes have been made.
      • Last SI base unit defined by a material artifact.
      • Stable to 10 -7 relative uncertainties.
    • METROLOGY is the scientific study of weights and measures. BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES POIDS ET MESURES S È VRES, FRANCE
    • “ METRETES” GREEK: LIQUID MEASURES JOHN 2:6
    • “ BATHOS” GREEK: 22 LITERS OR 5.81 GALLONS
    • “ KHOINIX” GREEK: STANDARD DRY MEASURES REVELATION 6: 5,6
    • SEED WAS USED TO MEASURE THE AREA OF A PLOT OF LAND
    • AREA WAS ALSO MEASURED BY HOW MANY BULLS IT TOOK TO PLOW A PLOT OF LAND IN ONE DAY
    • RULER OF THE COUNTRY…
    • 1875 A.D. “TREATY OF THE METER”
    • Metrology Around the Globe Today
      • The “Treaty of the Meter” was the catapult to create the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in S èvres, France. It is a large and beautiful estate in a Parisian suburb that “serves as the worldwide repository of all the units that maintain our complex international system of measurement units in most countries of the world today.”
      • The BIPM is based on the meter and the kilogram.
      • The BIPM system is called the Système International d’Unités (SI) or the International System of Units.
        • "You, in this country, are subjected to the British insularity in weights and measures; you use the foot, inch and yard. I am obliged to use that system, but must apologize to you for doing so, because it is so inconvenient, and I hope Americans will do everything in their power to introduce the French metrical system. ... I look upon our English system as a wickedly, brain-destroying system of bondage under which we suffer. The reason why we continue to use it, is the imaginary difficulty of making a change, and nothing else; but I do not think in America that any such difficulty should stand in the way of adopting so splendidly useful a reform."
        • Lord William Thomson Kelvin
                                                    
    • The meter has its origin in August of 1793 when the Republican Government of France decreed the unit of the length to be 10- 7 of the Earth’s quadrant passing through Paris and that the unit be called the meter.
    • Five years later, the survey of the arc was completed and three platinum standards and several iron copies of the meter were made. Subsequent examination showed the length of the Earth’s quadrant had been wrongly surveyed , instead of altering the length of the meter to maintain the 10- 7 ratio, the meter was redefined as the distance between the two marks on a bar.
    • A practical scale for time for world-wide use has two essential elements: a realization of the unit of time and a continuous temporal reference. The reference used is International Atomic Time (TAI).
    • A time scale calculated at the BIPM using data from some two hundred atomic clocks in over fifty national laboratories. The Louis Essen caesium clock developed in 1938. (top) First Atomic Clock in 1949 (middle) Modern Atomic Clocks (bottom)
    • Protocol Standards…Legal and Forensic Metrology
    • Standard Reference Materials: Chemicals. Characteristic Standards using Fractal Designs
    • Meteorological Station, Bihor, Romania
    • ECONOMIC MYSTERY: Active Calc-Alkaline and OIB Volcanoes, Hot Spots, and Ocean Ridges
    • IFREMER Laboratory for Deep Environment. Devices of observation, samples and measurements (autonomous and on cable) controlled by acoustical navigation.
    • Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
    • Measure of Current by Doppler Effect
    • Trawl-Net to pole used to cull Megafauna.
    • IFREMER Nautilus: Multi-instrumental for Deep Environment Measurements
    • “ Hop o’my Thumb”
    • Vacuum Cleaner for Small and Fragile Sampling
    • Pliers Selecting Tubes of Alvinellidae
    • Carottiers gather live organisms in ocean floor sediment.
    • Titanium Syringe Gathers Fluid Samples for Chemical Analysis
    • ALCHIMIST Measures Concentration of Ions, Nitrate and Nitrite at 6,000 meters in deep ocean.
    • Submersible Module Autonome de Colonisation (SMAC)
    • TEKS Science, Grade 4 Lesson with Activity
      • TEKS
      • §112.6 Science, Grade 4
      • (a) Introduction.
      • (4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.
      • (b) Knowledge and Skills.
      • (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:
      • (B) Collect information by observing and measuring;
      • (E) Construct simple graphs, tables, maps, charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.
    • TEKS Science, Grade 4
      • TEKS
      • §112.6. Science, Grade 4
      • (b) Knowledge and Skills.
      • (3) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct scientific inquiry. The student is expected to:
      • (A) Collect and analyze information using single tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses; and
      • (B) Demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.
    • Lesson and Activity
      • LESSON
      • Students play the game “The Weight is Right.”
      • They will estimate and measure the (5) weights of Earth’s resources like a tablespoon of sand, a cup of dirt, an aluminum foil ball, one fist-sized piece of pecan wood, and a ten-foot coil of copper wire (off the spool).
      • ACTIVITY
      • The class is divided into four groups; one student from each group is asked to “come on down” and get a set of measurement cards to be matched with the items. (Cards should be prepared by the teacher prior to the activity and should include weights written in ranges, such as 2 ounces up to 1 kilogram. There should be more cards than items). The groups are asked to confer and estimate the weight of each object. One student acts as the group spokesperson and posts the group’s estimate next to the first item.
    • Lesson and Activity
      • ACTIVITY continued
      • When all of the estimates are posted for the first item, the groups are asked to discuss and justify different estimates. The object is then weighed and a point is awarded to the groups with the correct answers. Allow time for group rethinking and revision before moving to the next item. Repeat the procedure for each item.
      • Discussion Questions
      • (after the winners are announced)
      • What strategy did your groups use to determine the weight of the object?
      • What strategy did you use to order the object from the lightest to the heaviest?
      • Were you able to order any objects without holding them? Why?
      • How might you verify your estimate?
    • Lesson and Activity
      • Discussion Questions continued
      • Is it easier to estimate the weights of the larger items or smaller items? Why?
      • Did you ever use your two hands as a balance?
      • Graphing
      • Chart a graph on the board to list lightest to heaviest weights.
      • Chart a bar graph on graph paper to model lightest to heaviest weights.
      • Variations
      • Level 1-(Beginner) Measure weights of Earth’s Resources
      • Example: sand, dirt, metal, wood, mulch, etc.
      • Level 2-(Intermediate) Measure weights of manmade resources
      • Ex: shoes, plastics, books, a paper clip, a porcelain cup, cardboard box, etc.
    • Lesson and Activity
      • Variations
      • Level 3-(Advanced) Measure weights that are extremely light or extremely heavy.
      • Ex: a feather, a postage stamp, one leaf, or a giraffe, a refrigerator, a planet, etc.
      • Discussions:
      • Weight vs. Mass (clarify misconceptions)
      • Gravity (Earth’s and other planets)
      • Scales (types and uses)
      • Balance (law in nature and science)
      • Accuracy (commerce and other applications)
      • La fin
    • References
      • BIPM, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.
      • http://www.bipm.fr/en/si
      • The Penguin Dictionary of Science , Uvarov, E.B., Isaacs, Alan, 7 th Ed., New York, New York, 1993, p. 274.
      • Journal of the Franklin Institute , (Lecture at The Academy of Music), Kelvin, Sir William Thomson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1884, 118: 321-341.
      • http://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/wave_theory_of_light.html
      • Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea).
      • http://www.ifremer.fr/francais/
      • http://www.ifremer.fr/droep/j-instrum.html
    • References
      • The Charles A. Dana Center, The University of Texas At Austin
      • http://www.tenet.edu/teks/math/clarifying/cateksgrade44.html
      • The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Webster, John G., (CRC Press LLC, Florida, 1999), pgs. 5:1,2,4,9; 73:1-42.
      • Insight on the Scriptures, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc., International Bible Students Association, Volumes 1 and 2, 1988, pgs. 158, 335, 532, 952, 953, 954, 1178.
      • Geokem: An Electronic Reference Text of Igneous Geochemistry.
      • http://www.geokem.com/images/scans/julia.png
      • http://www.geokem.com/background.html
      • United States National Bureau of Standards
      • http://www.marcdatabase.com/... / nbs-atomic-clock/
    • References
      • National Physical Laboratory
      • http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on%2Dline/atomicclocks/page1.asp
      • Images From Bihor County, Chamber of Commerce, Oradea, Romania, 2000, pgs. 46, 62, 63, 178, 179, 303.