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  • 1. Was Reconstruction a Success or Failure? Mr. Schnider 7th Grade U.S. History
  • 2. What we’re going to do today Agenda: – Warm Up – Activity: Structured Academic Controversy – Closure By the end of class, you will be able explain how Reconstruction was a success and how it was a failure. By the end of class, you will be able explain how Reconstruction was a success and how it was a failure.
  • 3. Rules of a Structured Academic Controversy 1. I am critical of ideas, not people. 2. We are all in this together. I focus on coming to the best decision possible, not on winning. 3. I encourage everyone to participate and understand all relevant information. 4. I listen to everyone's ideas, even if I don't agree. 5. Reflect: I put what someone has said into my own words if it is not clear. 6. I try to understand both sides of the issue. “That makes sense because…” 7. I change my mind when the evidence clearly indicates that I should do so.
  • 4. • Be respectful of each other • Disagree with another person's position and ideas but don't be critical of the person • Don't take criticism of your ideas as a personal attack • Listen to everyone's ideas, especially if you don't agree with them • Change your mind when the evidence supports this • Try to understand both sides of the controversy • Understand the position differences before trying to reach consensus (an agreement) • Focus on reaching the best outcome, not on winning Rules of Respect
  • 5. UNDERSTAND • Change causes conflict which result in both positive and negative consequences • Ones’ perspective shapes how we view events in history • Changing a culture’s collective beliefs takes considerable time
  • 6. Structured Academic Controversy • Round 1: 10 minutes to prepare – Team A = Reconstruction was a success (3 min) – Team B = Reconstruction was a failure (3 min)
  • 7. Structured Academic Controversy • Round 1: 10 minutes to prepare – Team A = Reconstruction was a success (3 min) – Team B = Reconstruction was a failure (3 min) • Round 2: 5 minutes to prepare – Team A = Reconstruction was a failure (3 min) – Team B = Reconstruction was a success (3 min)
  • 8. Structured Academic Controversy PICK UP READING PACKETS & begin reading! • Round 1: 10 minutes to prepare – Team A = Reconstruction was a success (3 min) – Team B = Reconstruction was a failure (3 min) • Round 2: 5 minutes to prepare – Team A = Reconstruction was a failure (3 min) – Team B = Reconstruction was a success (3 min) • Consensus: 5 minutes
  • 9. Share out groups’ consensus. Think & Discuss: • Were African Americans free during Reconstruction? In what ways? • What does it mean to be free? • Based on these documents, was Reconstruction a success or failure?
  • 10. 13th Amendment: 1865 Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Think to your self: 1. When were the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments passed? 2. Why do you think they were passed? 3. What rights did they guarantee for American citizens?
  • 11. Emancipation, Thomas Nast Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004665360/
  • 12. 14th Amendment: 1868 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction (laws) thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge (limit) the privileges or immunities rights) of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • 13. 15th Amendment: 1870 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Think to your self: 1. When were the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments passed? 2. Why do you think they were passed? 3. What rights did they guarantee for American citizens?
  • 14. PICTURE SHOWING SENATORS BRUCE, FREDERICK DOUGLASS, AND SENATOR HIRAM RHODES REVELS, 1881
  • 15. ElectedBlackOfficialsduringReconstruction DuringReconstruction,thousandsofAfrican-Americanswere electedtolocalandstategovernmentsthroughouttheSouthern states.Inaddition,17African-Americanswereelectedtothe UnitedStatesCongressfromSouthernstatesbetween1870 and1877.Herearephotographsof6ofthese17elected officials.
  • 16. Reconstruction BlackCodes(Modified) 1."Nonegroorfreedmenshallbeallowedtocomewithinthe limitsofthetownofOpelousaswithoutspecialpermissionfrom hisemployers.Whoeverbreaksthislawwillgotojailandworkfor twodaysonthepublicstreets,orpayafineoffivedollars.” 2.“Nonegroorfreedmanshallbepermittedtorentorkeepa houseintownunderanycircumstances.Nonegroorfreedman shalllivewithinthetownwhodoesnotworkforsomewhite personorformerowner.” 3.“Nopublicmeetingsofnegroesorfreedmenshallbeallowed withinthetown.” 4.“Nofreedmanshallbeallowedtocarryfirearms,oranykindof weapons.Nofreedmanshallsellorexchangeanyarticleof merchandisewithinthelimitsofOpelousaswithoutpermissionin writingfromhisemployer.” 5.“Everynegroistobeintheserviceof(workfor)somewhite person,orformerowner.” Source:IntheyearsfollowingtheCivilWar-throughoutthe South-state,city,andtowngovernmentspassedlawstorestrict therightsoffreeAfrican-Americanmenandwomen.Theselaws wereoftencalled“BlackCodes.”Theexampleaboveof“Black Codes”comefromlawspassedinOpelousas,Louisiana immediatelyaftertheCivilWar.
  • 17. Black Codes Think to yourself: 1.When were these Black Codes written? Who do you think wrote these laws? 2.List three things that freed men and women were NOT allowed to do according to the Black Codes. 3.Think. Why would white Southerners pass laws that controlled the movement of African Americans? What would happen if African Americans left the South in huge numbers? 4.How do these laws help you to understand what life was like in Louisiana and other Southern states after the Civil War?
  • 18. HenryAdamsStatement(Modified) Source:FormerslaveHenryAdamsmadethisstatementbefore theU.S.governmentin1880abouttheearlydaysofhisfreedom aftertheCivilWar. InSeptemberIaskedthebosstoletmegotothecityof Shreveport.Hesaid,"Allright,whenwillyoucomeback?"Itold him"nextweek.”Hesaid,"Youhadbettercarryapass."Isaid,"I willseewhetherIamfreebygoingwithoutapass.“ Imetfourwhitemenaboutsixmilessouthoftown.Oneofthem askedmewhoIbelongedto.Itoldhimnoone.Sohimandtwo othersstruckmewithastickandtoldmetheyweregoingtokill meandeveryotherNegrowhotoldthemthattheydidnotbelong toanyone.TheyleftmeandIthenwentontoShreveport. Isawovertwelvecoloredmenandwomen,beat,shotandhung betweenthereandShreveport.SundayIwentbackhome.The bosswasnotathome.Iaskedthemadame(theboss’swife), "wherewastheboss?"Shesaid,"Youshouldsay'master'.You allarenotfree…andyoushallcalleverywhitelady'missus'and everywhiteman'master.'“ Duringthesameweekthemadametookastickandbeatoneof theyoungcoloredgirls,whowasaboutfifteenyearsofage.The bosscamethenextdayandwhippedthesamegirlnearlyto death…Afterthewhippingalargenumberofyoungcolored peopledecidedtoleavethatplaceforShreveport.(Onourway), outcameaboutfortyarmedwhitemenandshotatusandtook myhorse.Theysaidtheyweregoingtokilleveryonetheyfound leavingtheirmasters.
  • 19. Henry Adams’s Statement Think to yourself: 1. Who wrote this document, when, and why? 2. According to Adams, what was life like for freed men and women after the Civil War? 3. Do you trust the account in this document? Why or why not?
  • 20. Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • 21. The Freedmen’s Bureau, 1868 Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92514996/
  • 22. “The Freedmen's Union Industrial School, Richmond, Va.” From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, September 22, 1866
  • 23. Sharecroppers
  • 24. CartoonbyThomasNast-Oct.24, 1874-“WorseThanSlavery” SourceCartoonbyThomasNast, publishedinHarper'sWeekly
  • 25. Ruins of Richmond, 1865 Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011646720/
  • 26. Ruins of a locomotive in the Petersburg railroad depot, Richmond, Va. [Stereograph] Civil War Treasures from the New-York Historical Society, [Digital ID, e.g., nhnycw/ad 42016] http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011660476/
  • 27. Emancipation. And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves … shall be free! Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana http://hdl.loc.gov/l oc.rbc/lprbscsm.scs m0336
  • 28. Title: Lincoln's funeral on Pennsylvania Ave. Date: Washington, D.C. 1865 April 19 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/brh2003004934/PP/
  • 29. Rebuilding relationships between the Union and the Confederate (Southern) States: ratify (adopt or pass) the Fourteenth Amendment before readmission to the Union would be granted. Year of Readmission
  • 30. “Overall, Reconstruction was a Success” 1.) 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments… 2.) Civil rights act of 1866 3.) Freedman’s Bureau 4.) African Americans could now hold public office 5.) South returned to Union as planned “Overall, Reconstruction was a failure” 1. Black codes 2. Hate groups developed and flourished 3. Sharecropping not as successful as hoped 4. Southerners resented the Reconstruction causing alienation between North and South 5. Andrew Johnson didn’t carry out Reconstruction as planned

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