Black and White PhotographyPresentation Transcript
Capture the World in Black & White
The First Photograph View from the Window at Le Gras, the first successful permanent photograph created by Nicéphore Niépce in 1826, Saint-Loup-de-Varennes. Captured on 20 × 25 cm oil-treated bitumen. Due to the 8-hour exposure, the buildings are illuminated by the sun from both right and left.
The Daguerrotype Spring, 1838- The daguerreotype (original French: daguerréotype) was the first successful photographic process. It was developed by Louis Daguerre together with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niepce had produced the first photographic image in the camera obscura using asphaltum on a copper plate sensitised with lavender oil that required very long exposures. The image in a Daguerreotype is formed by the amalgam, or alloy, of mercury and silver. Mercury vapor from a pool of heated mercury is used to develop the plate that consists of a copper plate with a thin coating of silver rolled in contact that has previously been sensitised to light with iodine vapour so as to form silver iodide crystals on the silver surface of the plate.
B&W in Photo History 1903 - Attributed to Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) and/or Orville Wright (1871–1948). Orville Wright preset the camera and had John T. Daniels squeeze the rubber bulb, tripping the shutter.
L’Atelier de l'artiste. An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre,
A black-and-white photo of a breadfruit c. 1870.
The solar eclipse of July 28, 1851 is the first correctly exposed photograph of a solar eclipse, using the daguerreotype process.
Not Just Grayscale
B&W is NOT Just Greyscale Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 – July 13, 1946) was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form. In addition to his photography, Stieglitz is known for the New York art galleries that he ran in the early part of the 20th century, where he introduced many avant-garde European artists to the U.S. He was married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe. "Venetian Canal” (1894) "Winter – Fifth Avenue" (1893) Group of artists in 1912 Terminal (1893)
A Hillotype An undated color photograph taken between 1907 and 1915 by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii
Transition to Color
Color photography was attempted beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments were directed at finding a "chameleon substance" which would assume the color of the light falling on it.
Levi Hill of Westkill, NY, claimed for the first time to have invented a way to produce naturally colored daguerreotypes, or Hillotypes, as they became known. When Hill refused to release the details of his process until a patent was filed, the profession denounced him as a fraud. In 156 years, no definitive evidence has been presented to suggest that Hill was or was not an imposter, until now. Using state-of-the-art technology, the 62 Hillotypes acquired by the Smithsonian in 1933 from Hill's son-in-law, John Boggs Garrison, finally gave up their secrets. Examination of a number of the Hillotypes by GCI scientists and curators from the Smithsonian's photography collection have confirmed that Hill was indeed a genius - he did discover a method to create several natural colors in his photographs.
Consumer grade process became achievable around 1900
What Makes It Work?
Critical Elements of B&W
Lighting & Contrast
Patterns & Shapes
Arguably, the lack of color in a B&W photo produces a ”void” in the perception of the image (i.e. the brain expects color). Consiously or unconsiously, that void can be filled by the brain with stronger interpretations of the visual image that may afford insight into shapes, patterns, and emotions.
Digital Techniques In-Camera vs Post-Processing
Color Wheel for Light
Color Film is B&W 1935 – ”modern” color film by Kodak (kodachrome) Not red, green, blue but cyan, magenta, yellow Each of 3 layers was B&W originally