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Digital Journals and Open Access






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Digital Journals and Open Access Digital Journals and Open Access Presentation Transcript

  • Revistas científicas digitales: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro Digital Journals and Open Access Dr Remedios Melero. Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, CSIC. E-mail: rmelero@iata.csic.es 1
  • Digital journals and open access 1. Past First initiatives, 80’s background, OA declarations, the “golden route” 2. Present OA jounals models and copyright issues Open source software for e-journals Researcher’s acceptance 3. Trends/future 2
  • 1. Past • First initiatives, • 80’s background, • OA declarations, the “golden route” 3
  • Online Open access journals before www Surfaces. Editor: Jean Claude Guedon http://www.pum.umontreal.ca/revues/surfaces/home.html Psycology. Editor: Stevan Harnad http://psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/ The Public-Access Computer Systems Review http://epress.lib.uh.edu/pr/pacsrev.html Editor: Charles W. Bailey Jr 4
  • Visionaires….. + Page 25 + The Public-Access Computer Systems Review ----------------------------------------------------------------- Harrison, Teresa M., Timothy Stephen, and James Winter. quot;OnlineJournals: Disciplinary Designs for Electronic Scholarship.quot; The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 25-38. ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1.0 Introduction The decade of the 80's has witnessed the advent of a revolution in scholarly communication. The explosive growth of wide-area academic computer networking using BITNET/EARN, Internet, and an extensive array of regional networks has brought us beyond the point of asking whether the networks will be used for scholarly communication. The important questions now center around how computer-mediated scholarly communication will take place. Increasingly, speculation has focused upon the ability of electronic media to replace paper as the primary delivery medium for scholarly journals. A prima facie case for the desirability of online or electronic scholarly journals seems already to exist. Advocates have based their cases on the advantages of computer networking and electronic media over print publication, such as the speed of dissemination, the relatively low costs of production and dissemination, and the ability to make more scholarship available than before [1]. Noting that publishers receive the economic benefits of research produced at public expense, Okerson has suggested that an electronic publishing component within the National Research and Education Network would enable scholarship to remain financially accessible to the public [2]. Other arguments have been based upon the ways that electronic publication might improve the practice of scholarship within academic disciplines. For example, advocates have described the superior possibilities for information retrieval that may be achieved when scholarly articles are interconnected in flexible databases [3, 4]. ….. 5
  • Background • Journal prices (big deals) …. Serials crisis • Fee-based subscription control by publishing houses + high restrictions by copyright • New tecnologies and internet • Awareness of new forms of access and dissemination • Social and institutional response to ‘publishers’ abuses’ • Emerging research/academic groups working on open source tools to favour open access and interoperability and exchange of archives 6
  • The Global Journals Problem UK 1989-99 Journals unit cost 364% Faculty salaries +60% Australia 1986-98 Serials unit cost +474% Serials expenditure +263% Titles purchased - 37% 7
  • Lists Related to the Open Access Movement. Peter Suber. http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/lists.htm Journal declarations of independence= Resignation of editors from a journal in order to launch a comparable journal with a friendlier publisher. Open-access policy statements by learned societies and professional associations Policy statements on how academic authors, journals, and publishers should treat the opportunities created by the internet for free online access to research literature. University actions for open access or against high journal prices Significant university actions to protest, resist, reverse, or extricate themselves from high journal prices, inflexible bundling arrangements, or oppressive licensing terms 8
  • Open letter. Public Library of Science http://www.plos.org/about/letter.html 9
  • Budapest Open Acces Initiative (BOAI) de febrero 2002 (http://www.soros.org/openaccess/): By ‘open access’ to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited” 10
  • Declaración de Berlín, 2003 (Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, http://www.zim.mpg.de/openaccess- berlin/berlindeclaration.html ): “Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community. In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible” 11
  • Budapest Open Acces Initiative Definición Declaración de Bethesda BBB Declaración de Berlín The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship…….. 12
  • Publishing related events espectrum Beginning World wide web Hybrid OA Most commercial (www, http ) programs publishers have e- journals versions 1990 1995 2004 Email 1999 2000 2002-3 2007 BBB Declarations ftp First version PLoS OAI-PMH gopher BMC GNu eprints Dspace OJS 13
  • 2. Present • OA jounals models and copyright issues • Open source software for e-journals • Researcher’s acceptance 14
  • Free ≠ OA OA Journal Models 15
  • OA journals models 1 Commercial vs fees and copyright $ per publication Hybrid model Full author-side payment OA-J p ay ns t io titu ns s/I or Auth Open free (for users -1 and readers). 0 Author retains 1 “platinum route” y pa rs Use Toll access journals -1 16
  • Examples of delayed free access/embargoed free access after 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 months or more hosted by Highwire press 17
  • Directory of open access journals http://www.doaj.org 18
  • Open J-gate. http://www.openj-gate.com 19
  • Free Software for e-journals development (OAI-PMH compliant) Open Journal System (OJS). Created within the Public Knowledge Project (http://www.pkp.ubc.ca/) Univ.British Columbia. Hyperjournal. Developed by a group of Univ. Pisa (http://www.hjournal.org/). DPubs (http://dpubs.org/). Cornell University SOPS (http://www.scix.net/sops.htm). University of Ljubljana, Eslovenia. 20
  • From 2004-2006 main publishers began hybrid OA journals programs •“Better join OA than make a battle….” • Option nearly risk-free: Journal Income= subscriptions (1) + author-side fees(2) If (1) is reduced by increase of (2), revenue keeps constant but if (1) is not reduced and (2) increases means publishers are charging twice for the same product 21
  • Nine questions for hybrid journal programs (P. Suber, 2006) 9. Is the fee high or low? 7. For participating authors, do the OA 8. If the journal previously allowed autor publication fees cover page color charges self-archiving without embargo, does it or are the latter laid on top of the former? still allow if authors who do not choose the new OA option? 5. Does the journal promise to reduce the 6. Does the journal automatically deposit subscription price in proportion to author participating articles in an OA repository uptake? independient of the publisher? Does it allow to do so? 3. Does the journal waive fees in cases of 4. Does de journal use OA-friendly economic hardship? licence, like CC? Does it let authors to do so? 2. If authors have a prior obligation to their funding agency to provide OA to their peer reviewed manuscript, does the journal let them comply without choosing the new OA option and paying the associate fee? 1. Does the journal let participating authors retain copyright? 22
  • Publisher OA hybrid program Fees American Chemical Society ACS Author Choice $1000-3000* Author American Physical Society Free to read $975-1300 Publisher Blackwell Publishing Online Open $2600 Author BMJ Publishing Group Ltd BMJ Unlocked • $3145 Publisher Cambridge University Press Cambridge Open Option • $2700 Publisher Elsevier Sponsored article • $3000 Publisher Highwire Press • Author-side payment $500-3500 John Wiley & Sons • Funded access $3000 Publisher Oxford University Press Oxford Open $1500-2800* CC Royal Society (UK) EXIS Open Choice $370-550 page Author Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) RSC Open Science £1000-2500* Publisher Springer Open Choice $3000 CC Taylor & Francis iOpen Access $3100 CC US National Academy of Sciences Open Access fee $1100* *Depending on institutional relationship/membership 23
  • Full OA publisher Fee Journals Biomed Central $505-2425 Author, + Titles= 180 BMC (depends on the commercial re- Covered ISI aprox journal) use, CC licence 27, (26 soon) Public Library of $1250-2750 Author, CC Titles= 7 Science (PLos) licence Covered ISI 5* Oxford University $1500-2800 Author, CC •Nucleic Acids Press (3 titles) (depending on licence Research membership/print •Evidence-based subscription Complementary and basis) Alternative Medicine •DNA Research CC= Creative Commons licence * PLoS Biology and PLoS Computational Biology ranked at the highest cited in their category 24
  • However…….. Advances in Engineering Education New OA journal from the American Society for Engineering Education. Only 75 $ for publication fee!!!!!!!!!! 25
  • Other OA journals models published by commercial publishers 1. Hindawi (www.hindawi.com) pay by print subscription free online access 26
  • 2. OA journals without any charge either for readers or authors. Medknow journals 27
  • New emerging models…….. Reed Elsevier has a web portal in oncology called ww.OncologySTAT.com The site provides free access to current journals from Elsevier's expensive journal titles, paying for it using ads. While Web adverts are nothing new, this combination of open access and ads is new. 28
  • Authors vs OA publications…… 29
  • Hess, T.; Wigand, R.; Mann, F.; von Walter, B. (2007). Open Access & Science Publishing. Results of a study on researchers’ acceptance and use of open access publishing. July/August 2006 Ludwig-Maximilans-University Munich + Univ. of Arkansas at Little Rock. Sample: 1433 researchesr from 49 countries. Answers: 688 1. Habits of publication. 3. Attitudes towards open access. 2. Expectations of use of open access publications. Actitud hacia OA por áreas 30
  • Experiencia en acceso a recursos OA vs disciplina Experiencia en publicaciones OA vs disciplina Familiaridad con el significado OA vs disciplina 31
  • Difusión, promoción open access Apoyo y reconocimiento institucional Cambios de hábitos. Nuevas formas de medir el impacto Apoyo y reconocimiento institucional 32
  • Future….trends…… 33
  • OA Publications Trends 2. New forms of electronic 1. Collaboration between publications (online open 3. Changes in customs of Publishers and repositories review, blogs and RSS research publishing and or data bases managers to services conected with scholarly communication deposit archives (like the articles) system) case of PubMed Central). 4. New commercial 5. Centralized national 6. Crosslinking among publishing business based on deposits of publications archives services not exclusively on (eDepot is already an access example) 8. New services based on resources on the web, not only 7. Consortia for funding open articles but datasets, grey 9. New evaluation metrics based access journals (like SCOAP3, in literature, audiovisual files (data on open access Physics) mining, abstracting, indexing, RSS…) 34
  • Opinions about Trends Paul Ginsparg. Next-Generation Implications of Open Access. CTWatch Quarterly August 2007. http://www.ctwatch.org/quarterly/articles/2007/08/next-generation- implications-of-open-access/ What will Open Access Mean? (services based on open/free access digital objects) Interoperability, common standards..... ...”For most disciplines, the key to progress will be development of common web service protocols, common languages (e.g., for manipulating and visualizing data), and common data interchange standards, to facilitate distributed forms of the above resources...” Semantics..... “Machine learning techniques familiar from artificial intelligence research will assist in the extraction of metadata and classification information, assisting authors and improving services based on the cleaned metadata. Semantic analysis of the document bodies will facilitate the automated interlinking to external resources described above and lead to improved navigation and discovery services for readers...” 35
  • Trends from Ithaca report. University Publishing in a digital age. II. What the World Looks Like Today and Where it is Headed: A. The future of scholarly communications http://scholarlypublishing.org/ithakareport/archives/15 • Scholars (collaborative environments) • Institutions (support and recognition) • Formats • Economic models 36
  • These environments will provide them with the tools Continuous publishing will enable and resources for conducting scholars to continually update or research, collaborating with correct “published” works, requiring peers, sharing working new ways of thinking about and papers, publishing documenting versions and conference proceedings, editions. manipulating data sets, etc. Scholars (collaborative environments) It seems likely that much of this activity will be organized Scholars will increasingly seek to work in around discipline-based electronic research and publishing portals/ subject matter environments. repositories. 37
  • Institutions Faculty Administrators Need to think about how best to Strong desire for greater support in provide these services • creating, • validating and publishing New forms of scholarship should their digital research output be recognized and rewarded 38
  • Scholarship published online will be enhanced with Building the infrastructure to support embedded graphics, audio multimedia content – the storage and video materials, all capacity and connectivity, tools for linked with datasets and creating and accessing content, applications needed to archiving multimedia assets, etc. – manipulate data, etc. requires substantial capital investment. Formats A new generation of devices for consuming information will require that content be organized and presented in new ways. 39
  • Traditional economic models of publishing are being Information technology provides an disrupted by the Web, and opportunity for universities to new ones are emerging. restructure the scholarly communications system in ways that better reflect the community’s values than the current system. This means having more influence over Economic models what gets published and how it is accessed and priced. Universities must revisit traditional views about how publishing is supported. Creating and disseminating dynamic content imposes some new costs on the system (software tools, storage, bandwidth) and reduces others (printing, physical storage, distribution). 40
  • ‘Flipping Model’ or ‘Inverted Hybrid Model’ (Peter Suber, SPARC Open access Newsletter, October 2007) from reader-sponsors to author-sponsors Mark Rowse was the CEO of Ingenta when Paula Hane interviewed him for Information Today in December 2003 http://www.infotoday.com/it/nov03/hane2.shtml “Imagine a publisher that has already licensed content to all the library consortia in the U.S. The publisher could, at a stroke, say that the license will now confer rights for the academics in those institutions to submit content rather than to access content. The publisher would have successfully flipped its business model completely, to being an open access business. So I think it's possible to see a transition from where we are now to a completely open access world without fundamentally destroying the existing scholarly publishing business” 41
  • Flipping the business model is a simple act because, under our assumptions, it changes almost nothing. It's like changing the way we interpret an optical illusion. Suddenly the drawing that looked concave looks convex. Nothing has changed but our interpretation of what's going on. 42
  • For real-world TA journals that don't already reach all researchers, flipping will remove fee barriers for all readers and add fee barriers for some authors. Whether it's a net gain for researchers qua authors will depend on at least five variables: (1) the number of authors not affiliated with paying institutions (2) the size of the publication fee facing those authors (3) the willingness of funding agencies to pay those fees for grantees (4) the willingness of universities not paying institution-wide fees to pay fees for individual faculty on a case-by-case basis, and (5) the willingness of flipped journals to waive their fees in cases of economic hardship. 43
  • Thank you! ¡Gracias…! Reme Melero E-mail: rmelero@iata.csic.es 44