Transcript of "History mid term power point 09-2011"
History Mid-Term Report<br />Ways of the World - Part I & II, Robert Strayer<br />By: Carlito Almero<br />September 22, 2011<br />
Global Presence of humankind<br />Humans evolutionary line of descent has been linked to chimpanzees, our closest primate relatives, 5 million to 6 million years ago<br />Homo habilis began to make and use simple stone tools<br />Homo erectus migrated out of Africa and have been associated with the first controlled use of fire<br />Homo sapiens emerged out of Africa and this was the beginning of the long trek into other parts of the world such as Eurasia, Australia, the Americas, and into the islands of the Pacific<br />The Paleolithic (Stone Age) era was born and is evidenced by the cave engravings and paintings left behind<br />These early forms of writings and paintings were found in deep caves which were associated with religious and ritual practices or rites of passages<br />
First Civilizations On Earthbetween 3500 to 1000 B.C.E<br />Chinese Civilization: Shang Dynasty<br />Mesopotamian Civilization<br />Olmec Civilization<br />Norte Chico Civilization<br />Indus Valley Civilization<br />Nile Valley Civilization<br />
Primitive Tools and Weapons<br />After the Afro-Eurasian world dating 25,000 years ago, the miniaturization of stone tools became evident<br />Stone blades and points were fastened to shafts used for hunting and grinding grains<br />Due to relocation, hunting tools were altered to adapt to their new surroundings <br />Known as, “micro-blades,” these smaller and more refined spear points, arrowheads, knives and scrapers replaced the primitive stone tools<br />
Early nomadic settlers<br /><ul><li>The Clovis people flourished between 12,000 to 11,000 years ago in especially frigid lands namely in Siberia which were inhabitable and inhospitable due to severe cold weather conditions
The thick ice sheets made it possible for them to migrate and follow their food source
They followed large mammals, such as wooly mammoths and bison of their era
The Clovis people are directly responsible for the distinctive projectile point, known as the Clovis point
Archeologists discovered small tools which have been identified as “mobile tool kit” in which they carried with them as they followed the large mammals they hunted</li></li></ul><li>Agriculture and Herding<br /><ul><li>Global warming caused plants and animals to flourish and increase in some parts of the world
Sowing became an essential part of settling in one area and thus made farming and herding possible
Farming was highly dependent on climate conditions and made agricultural societies vulnerable to famine should crops fail due to drought or other catastrophes
The domestication of animals emerged in parts of the region where farming was difficult or impossible, these areas were identified as herders, pastoralists, or nomads
Pastoral societies or animal husbandry became an essential form for food-producing economies in Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara, and in parts of eastern/southern Africa</li></li></ul><li>Climate<br /><ul><li>The last Ice Age came to an end between 16,000 and 10,000 years ago when the ancient warming phase started and a long cycle of repeated heating and cooling which is now characteristic of the earth’s climatic history
Climate change due to global warming caused improved conditions and human population grew and flourished</li></li></ul><li>Chumash<br />The Chumash is a post-Ice Age Paleolithic band who first settled in Southern California<br />They were able to draw on the resources from both land and sea to support their densely settled community<br />The Chumash invented and built the planked canoe, or tomolwhich demonstrated prestige, wealth and power since it was used as a fishing vessel or used as trade boats for traveling up and down the coastline<br />They lived in round, permanent houses covered by grass or reeds and able to hold up to seventy people<br />The Chumash thrived on a market-based system of trade and money<br />The Chumash society became tiered and ranged from manual laborers to the chiefs, some of whom were women. It was not uncommon for one chief to hold responsibility for several villages. The son or daughter could inherit this position of authority for the Chumash community when the chief died<br />
migration<br /><ul><li>Warmer and wetter stable conditions in the tropics and similar temperature regions of the earth made it possible for migration and most particularly, wild plants such as cereal grasses to grow abundantly
As human and animal population increased, soil erosion and deforestation led to declining crop yields thus requiring humans to scatter or “migrate” to other parts of the world as a response to an impeding “food crisis” </li></ul>New knowledge and technology followed humans as they explored and exploited their new environment<br />
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