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Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
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Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
Assertive communication
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Assertive communication

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Content used during AC training.

Content used during AC training.

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  • 1. Assertive Communication & Telephone Etiquettes© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 2. Module Objectives • Explain the basics of communication. • Identify the different types of communication. • Identify the different styles of communication. • Explain assertiveness. • Identify their own assertiveness profile. • Explain the benefits of assertive communication. • Identify tips and techniques to develop assertive Behaviour. • Display the skills, attitudes and habits for emonstrating Assertive Behaviour.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 2
  • 3. What is Communication? Any perceived Behavior - or lack of Behavior in one person that causes a "significant" mental, emotional, physical, or spiritual reaction in another person is "communication."© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 3
  • 4. Benefits of Good Communication Good communication skills can result in the following benefits for an individual:  Improved Job Performance  Success in interpersonal relationships  Enhanced Personal Effectiveness© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 4
  • 5. Verbal Communication Verbal communication is a series of expressive thoughts and perceptions expressed through words.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 5
  • 6. Verbal Communication Some things to be kept in mind in Verbal Communication are:  Clarity of the message  Be Concise  Keep in mind:  Must say  Should say  Might say  Be Simple© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 6
  • 7. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 7
  • 8. Non – Verbal Communication Non – Verbal communication constantly takes place amongst individuals. Even during a verbal conversation, non-verbal communication takes place, through gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, clothing and personal space.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 8
  • 9. Channels of Non – verbalCommunication  Facial Expressions  Verbal Paralanguage  Kinesics  Proxemics© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 9
  • 10. Facial Expressions Emotion Expression Description Happiness Eyes Open and Crinkled Mouth upturned Sadness Watery Eyes Mouth Turned Down Anger Heavily Frowning brow Scowling Mouth Surprise Rounded Eyes Open, O-shaped Mouth© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 10
  • 11. Paralanguage Different shades of speech including tone, pace and voice modulation are known as Paralanguage.  Tone of Speech  Rate of Speech© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 11
  • 12. Kinesics© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 12
  • 13. Proxemics The study of spatial territory for the purpose of communication uses four categories for informal space:  The intimate distance for embracing or whispering (6-18 inches),  The personal distance for conversations among good friends (1.5-4 feet),  Social distance for conversations among acquaintances (4-12 feet), and  Public distance used for public speaking (12 feet or more).© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 13
  • 14. Enhancing Non – Verbal Communication  Because gestures can both compliment and contradict your message, be mindful of these.  Eye contact is an important step in sending and receiving messages. Eye contact can be a signal of interest, a signal of recognition, even a sign of honesty and credibility.  Closely linked to eye contact are facial expressions, which can reflect attitudes and emotions.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 14
  • 15. Enhancing Non – Verbal Communication  Posture can also be used to more effectively communicate your message.  Clothing is important. By dressing for your job, you show respect for the values and conventions of your organization.  Be mindful of people‘s personal space when communicating. Do not invade their personal space by getting too close and do not confuse communications by trying to exchange messages from too far away.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 15
  • 16. Roles Follow this simple acronym to display Non – Verbal messages: R Remain Relaxed O Adopt an Open Position L Lean towards the person while speaking E Maintain Good Eye Contact S Face People Squarely© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 16
  • 17. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 17
  • 18. Assertiveness “Interpersonal Behavior (verbal and non-verbal) in which a person expresses him/herself and his/her needs in such a way that the rights of others are not infringed upon.”© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 18
  • 19. Benefits of Assertive Communication Assertiveness can be effectively used while:  Negotiating.  Resolving conflict and defusing anger.  Implementing/explaining controversial policy.  Communicating tough decisions.  Solving problems.  Establishing boundaries, balance.  Dealing with aggressive, passive and passive-aggressive behaviour.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 19
  • 20. What keeps one from being assertive?  Insecurity of others – in terms of age, rank and seniority.  Expectations.  Past experience.  Fears:  Causing harm to self or others.  Causing loss to self or others.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 20
  • 21. Assertiveness is an art that needs to be practiced continually. ―Each practice opportunity is also an opportunity to feel good about oneself for speaking up and feeling good about oneself is a step toward building self esteem."© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 21
  • 22. My Assertiveness Profile The four communication styles depicted through this tool are:  Aggressive  Passive  Receptive  Assertive© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 22
  • 23. The Assertiveness Matrix High Aggressive Assertive High Understanding Low Passive Receptive Enthusiasm Low© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 23
  • 24. Passive Behaviour  An individual with this Behavior tends to use low enthusiasm and low understanding levels.  He normally keeps to himself or remains quiet and unassuming in most discussions or in meetings with others.  When directly engaged, he may often concede to more aggressive types.  He is generally emotionally dishonest and does not convey his feelings to others openly.  Since he does not communicate openly, he ends up feeling hurt or anxious.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 25
  • 25. Passive Behaviour Possible body language used: • Leaning back • Hands clasped or arms crossed • Eyes averted or watching the broad scene with fleeting looks and possible sighs. • While talking to others, they allow themselves to be interrupted.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 26
  • 26. Passive Behaviour Strengths  Effectively analyzes discussions or debates.  Can listen effectively. Weakness  Ignores/sacrifices own rights.  Stays silent rather than speaking up.  Can feel inept at times.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 27
  • 27. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 29
  • 28. Aggressive Behaviour  An individual with this Behavior uses high enthusiasm and is low on understanding.  His primary objective is to be in control.  To achieve this, they may tread on others rights or feelings.  Such individuals may fail to listen to others.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 30
  • 29. Aggressive Behaviour Possible body language used:  Invades space  Loud voice  Arms crossed or moving aggressively  Very direct eye contact or even staring  Interrupts others while speaking  Subordinates others and tries to make others feel small and insignificant  Stereotypes others and makes statements to that effect.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 31
  • 30. Aggressive Behaviour Strengths  Confident and commanding when required. Weakness  May often be insensitive to others rights and needs.  May adopt a sarcastic or hostile attitude.  Interrupts or talks over others without listening.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 32
  • 31. Receptive Behaviour  An individual with this Behaviour uses high understanding and low enthusiasm.  He tends to offer gentle comments and suggestions in discussions and conversations.  He is more interested in finding out about other people and in building better relationships.  He may avoid jeopardizing a positive conversational climate to push even their important points too hard.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 33
  • 32. Receptive Behaviour Possible body language used:  Open posture  Good eye contact  Friendly  Smiling  Some use of hands when speaking and concentrating, so as to listen properly.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 34
  • 33. Receptive Behaviour Strengths  Keeps the discussions and conversations calm and friendly.  Gently offers a lot of ideas and suggestions. Weakness  May not come to the point about what they need or want.  May become upset in the face of high aggression or anger.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 35
  • 34. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 36
  • 35. Assertive Behaviour  An individual with this Behaviour uses high enthusiasm and highly understanding.  He usually has high feeling of self-esteem and is aware of his personal needs and rights.  He states his needs, wants and feelings in an honest manner.  At the same time, he is also sensitive to others needs and rights.  He will first listen to others attentively before firmly communicating his message.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 37
  • 36. Assertive Behaviour Possible body language used:  Relaxed  Slightly leaning forward posture and lots of use of the hands  Good eye contact and confident, usually modulated voice.  Usually nods, and questions the other person while listening to them.  Appropriately uses tools like paraphrasing to display his active listening skills.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 38
  • 37. Assertive Behaviour Strengths • Takes action towards achieving the result without denying others rights. • Pro-active and solution oriented to always find a positive way forward. • Demonstrates that he values the feelings and needs of others. • Listens effectively. Weakness • May not coach others who are less assertive.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 39
  • 38. Correct Answers ISV‘B JZZXYH BPJB BPH SVQE UJE BS UCV CZ BS FSYTHBH. ZSYHBCYHZ BPH AHZB UJE BS UCV CZ BS FSSTHWJBH UCBP SBPHWZ© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 40
  • 39. Correct Answers ISV‘B JZZXYH BPJB BPH SVQE UJE DON’T ASSUME THAT THE ONLY WAY BS UCV CZ BS FSYTHBH. ZSYHBCYHZ TO WIN IS TO COMPETE. SOMETIMES BPH AHZB UJE BS UCV CZ BS THE BEST WAY TO WIN IS TO FSSTHWJBH UCBP SBPHWZ COOPERATE WITH OTHERS.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 41
  • 40. The Communication Continuum Passive Assertive Aggressive Lose - Win Win – Win Win – Lose© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 42
  • 41. The Communication Continuum According to the communication continuum:  Being passive means that an individual dismisses his personal rights in favor of the rights of others.  Being aggressive means that the individual values his personal rights higher that those of others, who may ultimately feel dominated or humiliated by his communication.  Communicating assertively generally means that both parties feel satisfied and valued.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 43
  • 42. Traits of an Assertive Person The person:  Clearly defines his needs and wants in his communication.  Makes statements convey respect for the listener.  Sends messages that have no hidden agenda – what he says is what he means to say.  Has the ability to initiate, continue and terminate conversations.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 44
  • 43. Traits of an Assertive Person The person:  Has the ability to maintain eye contact.  Has an erect posture, clear speech and uses facial expressions and gestures effectively to emphasize on his communications.  Possesses the ability to say No.  Has the ability to ask for favors and make requests.  Has the ability to express positive and negative feelings.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 45
  • 44. Components of Assertive Behaviour  Enthusiasm used while communicating with others.  It includes both verbal and non-verbal elements.  Understanding indicates the level of understanding sought by an individual in communication.  It includes understanding of both feelings and views of the other person.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 46
  • 45. Types of Assertions There are four different types of Assertions:  Basic Assertion  Empathic Assertion  Escalating Assertion  I – Language Assertion© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 47
  • 46. Assertiveness can be depicted in a variety of ways. A person can display assertive Behaviour through his:  Behaviour  Verbal cues  Body Language© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 48
  • 47. Behavioural Techniques  Stand up for your basic rights.  Assume responsibility for your own feelings (Use ‗I‘ statements)  Behave like a ―Broken Record‖ continually stating your own feelings, needs, wants and desires.  While listening to other people use the active listening style.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 49
  • 48. Behavioural Techniques  Demonstrate empathy.  Identify the problems in Behavioural terms.  Focus on and brainstorm solutions.  Be willing to evaluate options.  Be aware of the boundaries.  Be aware of the choices and the consequences.  Trust in the outcome.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 50
  • 49. Behavioural Techniques  Make requests and ask for favors.  Refuse requests if they are unreasonable.  Accept both compliments and feedback.  Develop a value and belief system that allows you to assert yourself.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 51
  • 50. Verbal Cues  Agree on matters assertively.  Use factual descriptions instead of judgments.  Avoid exaggerations.  Keep a level, well modulated tone of voice.  Be specific.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 52
  • 51. Verbal Cues  Stand up for your opinions and stick to them.  Resist giving into interruptions before completing your own thoughts.  When saying ―No‖ be decisive.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 53
  • 52. Body Language  Be aware of other‘s body language as well as your own.  Maintain a good posture and eye contact. But ensure that the eye contact does not seem as if you are glaring at the individual.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 54
  • 53. Body Language  Keep your posture open and relaxed and make sure that your expression matches with the message you are conveying.  Stop self – limiting Behaviours, such as smiling too much, nodding too much, tilting your head, or dropping your eyes in response to another person‘s gaze.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 55
  • 54. Four Step Behaviour to being moreAssertive  Prepare for assertive encounters with the right facts and skills.  Organize yourself with rehearsals.  Put your skills to practice.  Learn from the outcomes of being assertive in a variety of situations.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 56
  • 55. Assertiveness Entails  Respectful communication  Both parties are committed to and comfortable with final plan  Agreeing to disagree—room for difference  Unique power dynamic  Both parties finish communication with integrity intact  Compassion© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 57
  • 56. Assertiveness in a Team In a team situation use Assertiveness to:  Think Win-Win. What is best for you and the team?  Include statements that illustrate the benefits to the team.  Respect your team members.  Share your knowledge and ideas with the team.  Point out potential problems in a constructive way.  Enable processes that move the team toward its goals.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012 58
  • 57. End of Day 1© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 58. Telephone Handling Skill© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 59. Objective At the end of this course you will be able to • Handle telephone calls professionally • Identify the stages of a telephone call • Understand the importance of verbal and nonverbal attentiveness • Process calls skillfully • Handle assertive, aggressive and passive callers effectively • Learn how to combat stress • Make positive impact with telephone© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 60. Becoming my Organization’s voice Ambassador© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 61. Are you an onion or an artichoke?© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 62. Quality, Quality! But Hurry Up!! Challenges faced by executives: • Quality • Speed© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 63. Becoming my organization’s voice ambassador? For effective telephone handling, you need to know the following: • Stages in a telephone call • Verbal and non verbal attentiveness over the phone • Call processing skills© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 64. Stages of a telephone call!© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 65. Stages of a telephone call The four stages of a telephone call: 1. Stage one: A verbal handshake 2. Stage two: Collecting information 3. Stage three: Action 4. Stage four: A verbal goodbye© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 66. Wake - Up, the customer needs you!© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 67. Wake - Up, the customer needs you! It is very important to make your customers feel that somebody is listening to them. It involves both your verbal and non-verbal attentiveness.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 68. Wake - Up, the customer needs you! Vocal factors Vocal factors are an essential part of the communicated message. Following are the various vocal factors that affect your communication : • Tone • Rhythm • Clarity • Timing/Pace© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 69. Wake - Up, the customer needs you Verbal attentiveness Verbal attentiveness is another important element of strengthening the personal bond with a customer. Remember the following points when talking to the customer: • Tell the customer what you are doing and how long will it take. Remember 87% of self talk is negative. • Tell what you can do and not what you can’t • Use “and” instead of “but” • Compliment the customer© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 70. Skillful Call Processing!© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 71. Skillful Call Processing Call processing is a skill that needs to be mastered. Todays telephones, from a basic home telephone set to sophisticated business sets, have features that can be business tools in our "toolbox" of communication skills. Call Hold, Call Transfer, Call Forwarding, Three-way Calling, Speed Dialing, Voice Mail, and other features of most modern systems can enable us to provide fast, efficient, courteous service to our customers.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 72. Skillful Call Processing Whenever you make or receive a call, you must keep the following things in mind: • Know who you are talking to • Speak the truth • Have a positive attitude • Avoid keeping the customer on hold • Synchronize between the customer’s message and your computer • Inform before transferring calls • Leave Clear Voice Mail messages© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 73. Transferring Calls • Get the correct name of the person who is calling in and the person whom he/she wishes to talk to. • Politely ask the person to hold on. • If the person’s line is busy inform the caller. Do not put on hold for too long. • Ask the person as to whether you can help in any way or whether there is any other person you can pass the phone to.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 74. Transferring Calls • When transferring calls, tell the person who the call is forwarded to, the name and purpose of the caller. • Give an option to call back if he/she has to hold on for too long. • Give him/her the option that you would take down the number and ask the concerned person to call back© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 75. Combat Stress!© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 76. Combat Stress Stress comes in all shapes and sizes, and has become so pervasive, that it seems to permeate everything and everybody. But you cannot let it affect your work. You need to combat stress. There are various ways in which you can relieve yourself of stress. Some of them can be using proper breathing techniques, confidence in your ability and an optimistic view about yourself.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 77. Combat Stress What does your breathing indicate Your breathing is the first element that will give you clues about your stress level. • Sighing is a sign of frustration. • Holding your breath indicates that some kind of discomfort is building and it needs release. • Yawning tells that there is too much carbon dioxide in the body.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 78. Wandering mind Your mind has a tendency to wander. You can bring yourself back to work by doing any of the following simple exercises: • Drink a glass of cold water. • Go to the rest room and wash your hands. • Write or type yourself a welcome-back note! • Say out aloud to yourself or anyone in earshot, ―I am back!‖ • Touch and feel the fabric of your clothes. • If thoughts persist, write them down. Offload what is on your mind that could take you away from the present. • Smile as widely as you can. Give service with a smile. It does get noticed even by someone over the phone who can‘t see you.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 79. Every call first call If a communication with a customer is bothering you, you can do any of the following to get rid of it: • Toss the call in the garbage (figuratively). • Tell someone about it. • Visualize a shredder and put the conversation in the shredder.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 80. Compliments Customers do compliment and when they do, you must: • Thank the customer. • Ask him, what made him say so. Following are some ways in which you can ask this::  “Thank you, what did I specifically do that you liked?”  “What was it that had you take the time to tell me this?”  “Was there something special I did this time?”© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 81. Compliments Keep the feeling and share Whenever you make a good call and the customer compliments you, you must keep the good feeling. Remember: Whatever you focus on expands.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 82. What do you do when push comes • Ask for guidance • Be well rested • Be prepared • Breathe deeply • Keep your wrap-up time to a minimum© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 83. Assertive Communication !© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 84. Three behavior styles callers often demonstrate on the telephone:  Assertive  Aggressive and/or irate  Passive© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 85. Assertive communication Express your thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in direct, honest ways that do not violate another persons integrity.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 86. Aggressive Communication Express your thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in ways that humiliate, degrade, belittle, or overpower the other person© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 87. Passive Communication Express honest feelings, thoughts, and belief or express them in such an apologetic, or self effacing way that others can easily disregard them.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 88. Fundamental Tips For Telephone Handling© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 89. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 90. Tips for fast talkers Here are some tips for fast talkers:  Pace yourself. After every 20 to 30 seconds, ask for a response with questions like:  Are you with me?  Am I answering your question?  Am I making myself clear?  Am I going too fast?  Am I going too slow?  Eliminate the commonly used words or phrases, such as ―You know‖, ―Basically speaking‖, ―To be honest‖.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 91. Tips for fast talkers When asked to repeat, don’t repeat the same words over and over again.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 92. Some General Tips On Telephone Handling  Use your name as well as the customer’s. “My name is Mary, I’m calling from…….” “Is this your official address, Ms. Miller.”  Repeat the information gathered to confirm your perception of it.  Be courteous and empathic  Have a friendly and courteous approach  Use voice modulation to create desired effect© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 93. Some General Tips On Telephone Handling  Never have food or tea while talking over the phone – it makes a very lousy sound at the other end.  Wait for the customer to hang the receiver first  Answer the phone within 2 rings, but not on the first ring  Never keep the customer waiting or on hold for more than 30 seconds© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 94. Some General Tips On Telephone Handling  In case of longer hold periods – inform the customer on the time that will be taken.  Concentrate on the phone call – do not try to do too many things at the same time.  Prepare yourself with all the details before making the call. Remember – time is precious© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 95. Voice Modulation • Speak clearly - pronounce words clearly. • Relax-pause and stop to breathe. • Vary the tone / pitch of your voice. • Speak slowly. • Smile to add expression to your voice. • Repeat message/address/phone number. • Be enthusiastic.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 96. 7Ps of Telephone Handling 1. Promptness - answer phone within three rings. 2. Politeness - greet cheerfully, apologize for any delay. 3. Preparation - have all information, paper and pencil handy (product, prices, delivery dates etc.) 4. Precision - be precise and factual. 5. Professionalism - handle customer‘s problem - not yours. 6. Practicality - Give what the customer needs. 7. Positive -Use questions which confirm need of the product to get your customer to buy.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 97. Basic Telephone Etiquette  Adopt proper etiquette and mannerisms based on gender, region, time and objective of call. ‗Good morning/ evening/‘  Never have food or tea while talking over the phone – it makes a very lousy sound at the other end  Wait for the caller to hang the receiver first.  Answer the phone within 2 rings,  Never keep the customer waiting or on hold for more than 30 seconds  In case of longer hold periods – inform the customer on the time that will be taken • Concentrate on the phone call – do not do too many things at the same time.© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 98. Action Plan • 2 things that you would START doing • 2 things that you would STOP doing • 2 things that you would KEEP doing© L & D Cell-Microsec,2012
  • 99. © L & D Cell-Microsec,2012

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