Internet2: How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus

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The attached slides are from a presentation made at the annual Internet2 Conference which was held this year in San Antonio, Texas. The slides were developed/co-presented by Jerry Sheehan (Calit2) …

The attached slides are from a presentation made at the annual Internet2 Conference which was held this year in San Antonio, Texas. The slides were developed/co-presented by Jerry Sheehan (Calit2) and Rod Wilson (Nortel)

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  • 1. How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus
    Jerry Sheehan, California Institute for Telecommunications & Information Technology (
    Rod Wilson, Nortel Networks (
    Internet 2, Fall Member Meeting
    October 6, 2009 8:45-10:00
  • 2. Climate Change and ICT
    Climate Change 101
    The Role of ICT in Anthropomorphic Climate Change
    Climate Regulation and ICT
    The Case of British Columbia: A Carbon Neutral Reality
    The Case of California: A Carbon Constrained Future
    The Case of Aviation: A Potential ICT Future?
    Calit2: A Testbed for ICT Enabled Carbon Reduction
    NSF Major Research Instrumentation Project GreenLight
    Flexible Work and Telepresence
    Smarter Buildings
    Smarter Transportation
    International Partnerships
    Presentation Overview
  • 3. Presentation Overview
    Enablers and Innovation
    Government assists
    Canada California Strategic Innovation Initiative (CCSIP)
    Green ICT & next generation Data Centers
    Finding maximum Bandwidth agility and flexibility
    Re thinking the Virtual Machine Turntable
  • 4. Climate Change & ICT
  • 5. Warming is Over 100 Times Faster TodayThan During the Last Ice Age!
    SOURCE: Monnin, et al., Science v. 291 pp. 112-114, Jan. 5, 2001.
    CO2 Has Risen From 335 to 385ppm (50ppm) in 30 years or
    1.6 ppm per Year
    CO2 Rose From 185 to 265ppm (80ppm) in 6000 years or 1.33 ppm per Century
  • 6. Temperature Has Increased 1F in Last Century
    Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, The Causes of Global Climate Change, Science Brief 1, August 2008
  • 7. The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming
    Temperature Threshold Range that Initiates the Climate-Tipping
    Earth Has Only Realized 1/3 of theCommitted Warming -
    Future Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Move Peak to the Right
    Additional Warming over 1750 Level
    SOURCE: V. Ramanathan and Y. Feng, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD September 23, 2008
  • 8. Global Climate Disruption Early Signs:Arctic Summer Ice is Rapidly Decreasing
    “The Arctic Ocean will be effectively ice free sometime between 2020 and 2040, although it is possible it could happen as early as 2013.”
    --Walt Meier, Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Centre at the University of Colorado
  • 9. The Carbon Footprint of ICT
    SOURCE: Smart2020 Report & The US Addendum, The Climate Group, 2008
  • 10. Climate Regulation & ICT
  • 11. GHG Regulation in British Columbia
    Bill 44-2007 was introduced in 2007 and enacted into law in 2008. The law is known as the Greenhouse Gas Reductions Target Act.
    The Act establishes greenhouse gas emission target levels for the Province.
    2020 BC GHG will be 33% less than 2007.
    2050 BC GHG will be 80% less than 2007.
    Bill mandates that by 2010 each public sector organization must be carbon neutral.
    If a public sector organization can not achieve carbon neutrality then they are required to purchase offsets.
    Offsets must be purchased from the Pacific Carbon Trust.
    The cost for public sector organizations is $24 per ton of CO2e.
    SOURCE: “Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 2007”, Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia, July 2009
  • 12. SOURCE:
    SOURCE: UBC Climate Action Plan, GHG 2006 Inventory
    SOURCE: UBC Sustainability Office, August 2009
    The Cost of Regulation: The University of British Columbia
  • 13. The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32)
    • Executive Order S-3-05 signed from Governor Schwarzenegger sets GHG targets.
    • 14. 2010 GHG emissions set to 2000 levels.
    • 15. 2020 GHG emissions set to 1990 levels.
    • 16. 2050 GHG emissions set to 80% of 1990 levels.
    • 17. AB 32 Overview (Signed Into Law 2006)
    • 18. Identify statewide GHG emissions for 1990 to serve as emissions limit to be achieved by 2020.
    • 19. 427 million metric tons of CO2e goal, roughly 30% reduction.
    • 20. Mandatory reporting and verification of GHG emissions by major emitters on or before Jan 1, 2008.
    • 21. If you emit over 25,000 metric tons of CO2e reporting is required.
    • 22. Identify and adopt regulations for discrete early actions enforceable by or before January 2010.
    • 23. Ensure early voluntary reductions receive appropriate credit in AB32 implementation.
    • 24. Convene Environmental Justice Advisory Committee to advise in development of scoping plan and implementation of AB32.
    • 25. Appoint an Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee
    SOURCE: 2009 Climate Adaptation Strategy Draft, p15, 2009
  • 26. UC Response to AB32
    The University of California (UC) Climate Actions
    • UC is a founding signatory to the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment.
    • 27. University of California System Wide Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets
    • 28. By 2014 reduce GHG emissions to 2000 levels.
    • 29. By 2020 reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels.
    • 30. All UC campuses have joined the California Climate Action Registry.
    • 31. Verified GHG reporting for all campuses.
    • 32. Most campuses have created and begun implementation of climate action plans.
    SOURCE: 2008 ACUPCC Signatories-605
  • 33. 42% of States Have Existing GHG Reduction Targets
    SOURCE: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Climate101-State Actions, January 2009
    State GHG Targets2009
  • 34. Federal Climate Legislation in the United States
    October 2009
    The EPA Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (March 2009) in response to Public Law 110-161 (08 Appropriations)
    “EPA has proposed a rule that requires mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from larges sources in the United States….In general, EPA proposes that supplier of fossil fuels or industrial greenhouse gases, manufactures of vehicles and engines, and facilities that emit 25,000 metric tons or more per year of GHG emissions submit annual reports to the EPA”
    Waxman-Markey H.R. 2454 passes the House in July 2009 by a vote of 219 Ayes, 212 Nays, 3 Present
    Wide ranging energy and sustainability bill but we are most interested in the carbon cap provisions and timeline.
    If you emit above your “cap” you are required to purchase offsets. Offsets would be about $11-$15 per ton in 2012 and roughly double in price by 2025.
    Kerry-Boxer Clean Energy Jobs & American Power Act
    More aggressive CO2 reduction targets then Waxman-Markey (20% by 2020 over 2005, 80% by 2050).
    Clean transportation is emphasized as part of CO2 reduction strategy.
    Cap and Trade becomes “Pollution Reduction & Investment”.
    EPA lead agency for regulation of any CO2 emitting entity over 25,000 tons.
    NYT, 9.30: Best guess is as of September 30 there are about 45 yes votes for the legislation.
  • 35. Carbon Regulation:Does Air Transportation Show ICT’s Future?
  • 36. Calit2: A Living Laboratory for ICT Enabled Carbon Reduction
  • 37. Calit2 GreenLight: An NSF MRI
  • 38.
    • Research
    • 39. Specialized Co-Processing in Generalized Execution Environment (Rajesh Gupta)
    • 40. Conserving Resources Through Virtualization (AminVahdat)
    • 41. Power and Thermal Management (TajanaRosing)
    • 42. Virtual and Augmented Reality (FalkoKuester, Jurgen Schulze, Tom DeFanti, BhaskarRao)
    • 43. Service Oriented Architecture (Ingolf Krueger, PavelPevzner, Matt Arrott)
    • 44. Capturing, Storing, Analyzing, and Sharing Energy Consumption Data (Jim Hollan)
    • 45. CineGrid Exchange, Storage for 4K Video (Tom DeFanti, Larry Smarr, Jeanne Ferrante)
    GreenLight Research Team and Foci
    • Applications
    • 46. Ocean Observatory Environment (Matt Arrott)
    • 47. Pathway Assembly and Bioinformatics (Trey Idekar)
    • 48. Computational Service for Metagenomics (Paul Gilna, Kayo Arrao, Phil Papadopoulous)
    • 49. CineGrid Exchange, Storage for 4K Video (Tom DeFanti, Larry Smarr, Jeanne Ferrante)
  • Internals Convey HC-1
    User Success: Better Science and Less Environmental Impact
    • Computational Center for Mass Spectrometry at UCSD has High Performance Computing Challenges
    • 50. Developed compute intensive software (InsPecT/MS-Alignment for their work) for analysis of protein’s post translational modifications (PTMs).
    • 51. This is their most compute intensive code.
    • 52. Convey Computer Has New Computer Architecture
    • 53. Combination of multi-core and frame programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
    • 54. Main innovation of HC1 is reconfigurable computing resources in memory coherent manner to mainstream processing.
    • 55. Environmental and Scientific Benefit
    • 56. One rack for HC-1 replaces eight racks of traditional HPC servers.
    • 57. Current benchmarks for fastest “blind search” is months. HC-1 benchmark is 1-2 days.
    • 58. -Roughly 300% improvement in speed.
  • GreenLight Provides a Environment for Innovative “Greener” Products to be Tested
    Quadrics Was Designed to Use
    20% and 80% Less Power per Port Than Other Products in the 10 GigE Market
  • 59. Smarter Buildings Mean Better MeteringCalit2@UCSD Case Study
    SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008
  • 60. Smarter BuildingsWhat Can We Learn About Mixed Use Buildings
    500 Occupants, 750 Computers
    Detailed Instrumentation to Measure Macro and Micro-Scale Power Use
    39 Sensor Pods, 156 Radios, 70 Circuits
    Subsystems: Air Conditioning & Lighting
    Peak Load is Twice Base Load
    70% of Base Load is PCs and Servers
    90% of That Could Be Avoided!
    SOURCE: Rajesh Gupta, CSE, Calit2
  • 61. Travel Substitution @ Calit2Daily Use
    Daily Telepresence: Flexible Work, Virtualized Assistant, using Skype
    SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008
    Weekly Virtual Meetings of Director’s Office Using Polycomm Desktop
  • 62. Travel SubstitutionThe Cisco Telepresence Case Study
    Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play and Learn
    • 533 Cisco TelePresence major cities globally
    • 63. US/Canada: 108 CTS 3000, 109 CTS 1000, 6 CTS 3200, 90 CTS 500, 3 CTS1300
    • 64. APAC: 29 CTS 3000, 34 CTS 1000, 14 CTS 500, 3 CTS 3200, 1 CTS1300
    • 65. Japan: 7 CTS 3000, 2 CTS 1000, 1 CTS 500, 1 CTS 3200, 1 CTS1300
    • 66. Europe: 31 CTS 3000, 35 CTS 1000, 5 CTS3200, 27CTS500, 2 CTS1300
    • 67. Emerging: 14 CTS 3000, 3 CTS1000, 1 CTS3200, 7 CTS 500
    163 Major Cities in 45 countries
    • 355K TelePresence meetings scheduled to date. (Weekly average utilization in the past30 days is 21,522 meetings)
    • 68. 473K hours (average meeting is 1.25 hrs)
    • 69. 27K+ meetings with customers to discuss Cisco Technology over TelePresence
    • 70. 68K+ meetings avoidedtravel
    • 71. Conservative estimate of cost savings and productivity improvement
    ~$296M to date
    • Metric tons of emissions saved:: 149,018
    • 72. Equal to >25,000+ cars off the road
    Calit2 Will Have CTS 1000s at UCSD and UCI
    • 30K Multipoint mtgs
    • 73. Average 3,919 in past 30
    • Overall average utilization
    Updated Aug 2,2009….145 weeks after launch
  • 74. Travel Substitution: Auditorium to Auditorium (A2A) Collaboration using LifeSize HD
    September 8, 2009
    SOURCE: Photo by Erik Jepsen, UC San Diego
  • 75. The Future of TelepresenceUsing Digital Cinema 4k Streams
    Keio University
    President Anzai
    Chancellor Fox
    Streaming 4k
    with JPEG 2000 Compression
    ½ Gbit/sec
    4k = 4000x2000 Pixels = 4xHD
    100 Times the Resolution of YouTube!
    CINEGRID: Lays Technical Basis for Global Digital Cinema
    Calit2@UCSD Auditorium
  • 76. Using ICT For Smarter TransportationThe Calit2 Traffic System
    SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008
  • 77. How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
    Bits and optical bandwidth are virtually carbon free
    Optical networks (as opposed to electronic routed networks) have much smaller carbon footprint
    Significant reduced CO2 impacts are possible through use of cyber-infrastructure tools like virtualization, clouds, SOA, grids, Web 2.0, etc.
    Research needed in new “zero carbon” computer and network architectures needed to connect remote computers, databases and instruments will be essential
    New zero carbon applications and “gCommerce”
    Complete computational Virtualization and migration enabler for “follow the sun” and other green energy sources.
  • 78. Your Carbon Inventory
    ISO 14062 analysis
    life cycle operation 5 years coal
    Optical Switch 4 tons 20 tons
    Router 16 tons 500 tons
    Optical Amplifiers 2 tons 40 tons
    Computer server 12 tons 40 tons
    Ethernet switch 8 tons 20 tons
    PC 20 tons 5 tons
    Travel to install and repair - 100 tons
    Virtualized network can save 50% of your carbon emissions!
    You must take action to achieve reductions
  • 79. Enablers and Innovations
    Zero Carbon ICT
    Purchasing green power locally is expensive with significant transmission line losses
    Demand for green power within cities expected to grow dramatically
    -Cooling also a major problem in cities
    But most renewable energy sites are very remote and impractical to connect to electrical grid.
    Can be easily reached by an optical network
    Provide independence from electrical utility and high costs in wheeling power
    Savings in transmission line losses (up to 15%) alone, plus carbon offsets can pay for moving ICT facilities to renewable energy site
    ICT is only industry ideally suited to relocate to renewable energy sites
    Also ideal for business continuity in event of climate catastrophe
  • 80. CANARIE Leadership
    The result of this initiative will provide a significant Green ICT enablement model and data. Results will help quantify and demonstrate workable solutions.
    Canada’s advanced research network and research organization
    June 1st Call for million $ Green ICT grant proposals
    Demonstrate technical feasibility and usability of relocating computers and other cyber infrastructure to zero-carbon data centres that are connected by optical networks, and powered solely by renewable energy sources such as the sun or the wind, and
    Create business case for providing carbon offsets (and/or equivalent services) to university researchers and IT personnel who reduce their carbon footprint by relocating computers and instrumentation to zero-carbon data centres
    23 proposals submitted
    Final decisions not yet publicly announced
  • 81. Canada California Strategic Innovation Partnership
    5 areas of research: Carbon capture; Green It; Infectious Disease; Next Gen Media; sustainable bio-fuels
    MOU : California, Canada campuses combat greenhouse gas emissions with green IT
    University of British Columbia is first University signatory to the MOU
  • 82. Green IT MoU
    Initial Signatories: UCSD, UBC, PROMPT
    To share best practices in reducing GHG emissions and baseline emission data for cyber-infrastructure and networks as per ISO 14064,
    To explore carbon reduction strategies by new network and distributed computing architectures such as PROMPT G-NGI, OptiPuter and CineGrid.
    To work with R&E network to explore relocation of resources to renewable energy sites, virtualization, etc.
    To explore the potential for a “virtual” carbon trading systems
    To explore the creation of a multi-sector pilot of a generalized ICT carbon trading system including stakeholders from government, industry, and universities.
    To collaborate with each other and with government agencies and departments and other organizations
  • 83. Current Data Center Challenges
    Cooling and electrical costs can represent up to 44% of a data centers total cost of ownership
    The Uptime Institute estimates , the three-year cost of powering and cooling servers is currently one-and-a-half times the cost of purchasing server hardware
    With the growing demand for cheaper and ever-more-powerful high-performance computer clusters, the problem is not just paying for the computers, but determining whether institutions have the budget to pay for power and cooling
    Current Campus power is at a premium if available at all to light new initiatives
    Some institutions can’t deploy more servers because extra space and electricity isn’t available at any price.
    Many utilities, especially those in crowded urban areas, are telling customers that power feeds are at capacity and they simply have no more power to sell. BC Hydro currently has to import power to meet its demands
    source: Dan Gillard
    BCnet 04/09
  • 84. British Columbia BCnet Leadership
    The Concept
    Use cyber infrastructure to combat global warming by reducing computing infrastructure’s carbon footprint
    Find efficient ways to share computing facilities that are close to sources of green power by utilizing BCNET’s advanced network infrastructure within the Province
    Make it possible for BC’s Universities to reduce their carbon footprint by relocating their existing ICT infrastructure to “greener facilities”
    Build a zero carbon data centre and use the BCNET/CANARIE ROADM network to connect users to it
  • 85. ROAM Network as Enabler
    Bandwidth when required
    …where required
    100GBPS Ready
    SOURCE: Eric Bernier, CTO
  • 86. Long Haul High Speed Optical Systems
    • 100Gb/s circuit configuration: reporting distance of 1267 km
    • 87. Performance of 100Gb/s over a 50GHz grid
    • 88. 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s on a network carrying 5 x 10 Gb/s live traffic
    • 89. 100Gb/s and 10Gb/s on adjacent channels on a 50GHz grid and on a 100GHz grid
    • 90. 3 x 40Gb/s and 1 x 100Gb/s and 1x 10Gb/s in a group of 8 wavelengths on a 50GHz grid
  • BC’s Green Data Centre MUST be in Proximity to a Clean Source of Power
    Zero Carbon Data Center
    source: Dan Gillard
    BCnet 04/09
  • 91. Power: Locating BC’s Green Data Centre
    Where: MUST be in the BC Interior
    source: Dan Gillard
    BCnet 04/09
  • 92. Other Power Innovations
    But what do you do when the sun don’t shine and the wind don’t blow?
    Solar Powered Data Centers
    • Current Examples include
    • 93. Green House Data, Cheyenne WO
    • 94. AISO wind powered data farm
    • 95. Iceland and Lithuania National strategies
  • Emerging “Follow the Sun” Technologies
    The ability to migrate entire virtual machines to alternate data centres exists.
    Over HS networks the latency is tiny and transfer is invisible to the user.
    Happens instantly without user knowledge, action or intervention
    Nortel’s research labs developed and conceived the “Virtual Machine Turntable in 2006 and through collaboration with R&E networks in the US, Canada, Netherlands, and South Korea proved viability.
  • 96. The SC06 VMT Demonstrator
    Sensor Webs
    Sensor Services
    Computation at the Right Place & Time!
    We migrate live Virtual Machines, unbeknownst to applications and clients, for data affinity, business continuity / disaster recovery, load balancing, or power management
  • 97. Concluding Thoughts
    Green ICT needs to Move Beyond “Data Centers” to Showing the Full Range of Challenges and Opportunities.
    We need to remember that “It’s about the carbon, dummy.”
    Academic CIOs need to begin to think strategically about how to use ICT to enable carbon minimized computing and education.
    What does it do to our networking needs?
    Who skills do we need to have that we don’t currently have?