ESD Working Paper SeriesThe Historical Roots of the Field of Engineering Systems:Results from an In-class AssignmentChrist...
Third International Engineering Systems SymposiumCESUN 2012, Delft University of Technology, 18-20 June 2012        The Hi...
1 IntroductionIn the initial, required, Engineering Systems doctoral seminar at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (...
Table 1: Root and Methodology pairs (on same line) for all 24 papers submitted from 2008-2011. Topics shaded in grey have ...
3 MethodologyThe lead author generated the insights described in Section 5 by reviewing the 24student submissions and the ...
and several years prior to this study, a systematic bias is also possible for students ofearlier years (e.g., 2008-2009). ...
8. Did your experience with the ESD.83          11. How important was the HistoricalHistorical Roots assignment encourage ...
12. Rate your level of agreement with the                 3. Can you remember any newfollowing statement: "Overall, the Hi...
comments. The importance of the development and interrelations of the fieldsunderlying Engineering Systems is embodied in ...
submission demonstrating a strong linkage between cybernetics and business strategyby emphasizing, among others, the work ...
The Importance of Key Individuals to the Development of Engineering Systems.An important common theme among the assignment...
concepts and methods related to their chosen fields or to Engineering Systems moregenerally. One survey respondent said in...
•    “I really think this was an excellent assignment. It was a great way to        explore the key methodologies in engin...
varied, with each root bringing the intellectual imprints of its source discipline. Asone might expect, it is often diffic...
Mintzberg, H. (1990), The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises of Strategic  Management. Strategic Management J...
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  1. 1. ESD Working Paper SeriesThe Historical Roots of the Field of Engineering Systems:Results from an In-class AssignmentChristopher L. Magee Stephen M. ZoepfMassachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technologycmagee mit.edu szoepf mit.eduRebecca K. Saari Joseph M. SussmanMassachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technologysaarir mit.edu sussman mit.eduG. Thomas Heaps-NelsonMassachusetts Institute of Technologyheaps mit.eduPaper submitted for the Third International Engineering Systems Symposium(co-sponsored by CESUN, ESD, and TU Delft), to be held June 18-20, 2012 at TU Delft.ESD-WP-2012-05 March 2012 esd.mit.edu/wps
  2. 2. Third International Engineering Systems SymposiumCESUN 2012, Delft University of Technology, 18-20 June 2012 The Historical Roots of the Field of Engineering Systems: Results from an In-class Assignment Christopher L. Magee, Rebecca K. Saari, G. Thomas Heaps-Nelson, Stephen M. Zoepf and Joseph M. Sussman 1 Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Ave Building E40-369 Cambridge, MA 02139 cmagee@mit.edu, saarir@mit.edu, heaps@mit.edu, szoepf@mit.edu, sussman@mit.edu Abstract. The field of Engineering Systems (ES) is quite young but there are intellectual roots that go far back in time. At least that is the working hypothesis in an integrative capstone assignment given in the first doctoral subject for incoming ES PhD students at MIT. The assignment has been given for four years (2008-2011) and involves pairs of students researching the intellectual connections between a specific historical root and a specific modern ES method. This paper describes the faculty and student perspectives on the assignment, including the perceived learning outcomes, and insights gained into the roots of Engineering Systems. Some overall observations include: •Interconnections among almost all selected topics (whether labeled roots or modern methods) are apparent. Each topic has an extensive time period of unfolding which gives rise to overlap and complex interactions among the topics; •Herbert Simon’s work appears most pivotal in the roots of Engineering Systems. Jay Forrester, John von Neumann, Norbert Weiner and Joseph Schumpeter are also identified along with others as having a significant impact; •The faculty always learn something about the field from what the students find even when topics are repeated; and, •The assignment is a valuable – but not perfect – vehicle for learning about Engineering Systems and for launching budding researchers’ efforts in the field. Keywords. historical roots, Engineering Systems, methodologies, knowledge relationships, citation analysis, engineering pedagogy
  3. 3. 1 IntroductionIn the initial, required, Engineering Systems doctoral seminar at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (MIT) (see (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012) and(Roberts et al., 2009) for thorough course descriptions), the two overarching learningobjectives are: 1. Increasing student knowledge of the field; 2. Increasing student understanding of research in Engineering Systems.Over the past four years, an assignment in this course – dubbed “Historical Roots” –evolved into one of the major tools for accomplishing both learning objectives. Thispaper describes the assignment, its evolution and its role in the course. Perhaps moreimportantly, the paper also attempts to use the assignment submissions over the pastfour years to explore, in a preliminary way, the historical roots of the new but vibrantfield of Engineering Systems (which is only one name – that used at MIT – for thefield that seeks to comprehend complex socio-technical systems). This paper thusbegins to explore both the content of and suitable pedagogy for the intellectualfoundations of the field, and the relationships among these foundations.The paper is structured as follows: the assignment and student submissions aredescribed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the sources of the observations provided inthis paper, which are based on the faculty’s reflections on the assignment and theirreview of the submitted materials. Student feedback was also solicited through the useof a web survey. A quantitative summary of the survey data is presented in Section 4and integrated results are detailed in Section 5. Overall discussion of the resultsfollows in Section 6.2 Historical Roots AssignmentThe Historical Roots assignment requires each student team to prepare a 5,000 wordreport and later give a 25 minute in-class presentation 1. Each student team selectsboth a “historical root” and a “modern methodology.” The assignment furtherrequires 2 that each team explore forward in time from their historical root andbackward in time from the modern methodology using careful historical analysis ofthe literature, citation analysis and other methods to explore the complex web of workwhich precedes current Engineering Systems practice and research. The historicaldevelopment of these interrelated fields is explored deeply in each submission 3. Overthe past four years, students have chosen the historical roots/modern methodologypairs shown in Table 1.1 The presentations were not part of the assignment in 2008 but were from 2009-2011.2 The full detailed assignment is available (see Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012).3 Two example submissions have been posted by the student authors (Santen and Wood, 2008; Cameron and Pertuze, 2009) and are worth examination by the interested reader.
  4. 4. Table 1: Root and Methodology pairs (on same line) for all 24 papers submitted from 2008-2011. Topics shaded in grey have been selected more than once. Year Historical Root Methodology Impact of Technology on the Technological Dynamics 2011 Economy Cybernetics and Control Theory Strategy Sociobiology Modern Network Analysis Complexity Theory Social Networks Organizational Theory Real Options Analysis Benefit Cost Analysis for Project Equilibrium Economic Analysis 2010 Evaluation (Historical) Network Analysis Social Networks Sociobiology Agent Based Modeling Cybernetics and Control Theory System Dynamics Operations Research Stochastic Optimization Negotiation Consensus Building Operations Research Network Equilibrium Economic Analysis 2009 Analysis Impact of Technology on the Stakeholder Analysis Economy (Historical) Network Analysis Modern Network Analysis Supervisory Control Decision Making Under Uncertainty Scientific Management Real Options Analysis Scientific Management Strategy Development Game Theory Decision Analysis 2008 Decision Theory Decision Making Under Uncertainty (Historical) System Dynamics Agent Based Modeling Multi-Attribute Tradespace Systems Engineering Exploration (Historical) Network Analysis Social Networks Impact of Technology on the Strategy Economy Decision Theory Agent Based ModelingIn most instances, the root and method were chosen by the students with theexpectation that a direct link could be found between them. Even though a number ofroots and a number of methodologies were studied more than once, in only oneinstance was the same pairing chosen. Hence, virtually all of the 24 reports submittedrepresent unique endeavors.
  5. 5. 3 MethodologyThe lead author generated the insights described in Section 5 by reviewing the 24student submissions and the associated faculty-provided feedback; these represent thefaculty perspectives on the assignment. The student perspective was sought through aweb survey described herein.3.1 Student Web SurveyThe authors used SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/) to develop anonline 16-question multiple-choice/Likert scale/open-ended response survey. The 47students who have completed the Historical Roots assignment in the MIT EngineeringSystems doctoral seminar were invited to participate by email over a period of twoweeks in January 2012. The survey response rate was ~75% (i.e., 35 responses out of47), with most respondents completing the survey in 15-30 minutes.The survey sought to gather information in the following categories: • General attitude toward and retrospective feedback regarding the assignment; • Recall of insights, ideas, skills and methodologies gleaned from the assignment and their influence on students’ subsequent doctoral research activities; and • Evaluations of the role of the assignment in Engineering Systems cohort and community building.To complement the multiple-choice responses, 12 of 16 questions allowed forelaboration and open-ended comments, providing a qualitative source to search forcommon themes in the students’ perspectives. One author coded the 160 qualitativeresponses obtained, with codes and results described in Section 4.To improve clarity and to minimize fatigue and bias, the authors consulted fourstudent pre-testers and two MIT survey methodology experts.To the extent of the authors’ ability, the final survey instrument was designed to guardagainst acquiescence bias (Dillman et al., 2009), and social acceptability bias. Stepswithin the survey included: careful question wording; and the option to gracefullyopt-out of individual questions, the whole survey, and the qualitative responses. Thesebiases were further mitigated through measures to preserve respondent anonymity.Specifically, raw responses were available only to the student co-authors, and wereanonymized before they were analyzed; the results were aggregated before they wereshared with the professorial co-authors. The responses may still be subject to suchbiases, however, the nature of the comments themselves – seemingly frank andsometimes critical – provides some measure of confidence.Another potential bias is a variation in the respondents’ ability to recall the pertinentdetails. Given that the respondents completed this assignment between several months
  6. 6. and several years prior to this study, a systematic bias is also possible for students ofearlier years (e.g., 2008-2009). To accommodate lack of recall, survey questionsincluded “do not recall” response options and allowed the respondent to skipquestions, where appropriate. By way of reminder, the invitation to participateincluded a list of roots and methodologies chosen by each student pair (seeanonymous list in Table 1), but no other efforts were made to aid respondents’ recall.Another potential temporal bias arises from the minor inter-annual differences in theHistorical Roots assignment details (see Section 2), though none were deemedimportant enough to necessitate separate survey instruments for separate years.Instead, results were analyzed by year as well as in aggregate to identify temporalvariations (see Section 4).4 Survey ResultsThe main survey results are briefly introduced here and later referenced in Section 5.The multiple-choice responses are summarized in Table 2, Figure 1 and Figure 2.They indicate a generally positive attitude toward the assignment and a recollection ofuseful skills and insights, though these understandably diminish with the time elapsedsince completion of the assignment (see Figure 2).Table 2: Survey responses (from Questions 3–6) indicate a positive impact of the HistoricalRoots assignment on development of student knowledge and, to a lesser extent, directcontributions to research. X = ideas X = skills or or insights methodologiesCan you remember any new [X] to which youwere exposed through your Historical Roots 80% replied 82% repliedassignment? Yes Yes[If you answered Yes, please describe them here]Have you used any [X] from this 49% replied 33% repliedassignment in your subsequent research? Yes Yes[If so, which ones?]
  7. 7. 8. Did your experience with the ESD.83 11. How important was the HistoricalHistorical Roots assignment encourage Roots assignment to helping you feel ayou to explore more deeply the historical sense of community with your year’sroots of your subsequent doctoral cohort of doctoral students?research?9. Rate your level of agreement with the 12. Rate your level of agreement with thefollowing statement: "From listening to following statement: "Overall, themy classmates presentations of their Historical Roots Assignment was theHistorical Roots assignment, I learned a worth the time I devoted to it."lot about the breadth and depth ofengineering systems."10. How important was the Historical 13. Rate your level of agreement with theRoots assignment to helping you feel like following statement: “I was glad to worka part of the emerging Engineering with a partner on the Historical RootsSystems research community? assignment."Figure 1: The survey results indicate generally positive responses to the learning and socialaspects of the Historical Roots assignment.
  8. 8. 12. Rate your level of agreement with the 3. Can you remember any newfollowing statement: "Overall, the Historical ideas or insights to which youRoots Assignment was the worth the time I were exposed through yourdevoted to it." Historical Roots assignment?Figure 2: Responses suggest that more recent classes have a slightly more positive recollectionof the Historical Roots assignment (Q12), while monotonically declining recall of new ideas orinsights suggests a possible recollection bias (Q3).In their open-ended responses, students described gaining insights into the roots ofEngineering Systems, increasing their knowledge of the field, and increasing theirunderstanding of research in the field. The major themes found included (number ofmentions in parentheses): the interrelation of fields (13); the historical development ofEngineering Systems (9), including the importance of key scholars (6); learning aboutconcepts (22), methods (23), and fields (6) related to Engineering Systems; and thedevelopment of scholarly skills (25) such as literature searches (20).5 Integrated Observations and FindingsThis section summarizes the faculty and student perspectives in two broad categories:1) development and interrelation of fields underlying Engineering Systems; and, 2)pedagogy, value and limitations of the assignment in developing future scholars inEngineering Systems. Broadly speaking, the first section introduces some of thespecific findings and meta-results from the assignments, and the second provides thestudent perspective on their learning.5.1 Development and Interrelations of Fields Underlying Engineering SystemsThe development and interrelation of fields is a pervasive theme throughout thesubmitted assignments and is clearly evidenced in many of the open-ended survey
  9. 9. comments. The importance of the development and interrelations of the fieldsunderlying Engineering Systems is embodied in several survey responses below 4: • “The fact that many of todays challenges were actually being discussed back as early in the 1960s;” • “Establishing a new discipline (e.g. [Engineering Systems]) requires knowing history and using it in a different way;” • “Science is a very personality driven process, with major advancements centered around specific individuals.”Relationships Among Fields Underlying Engineering Systems. The submissions’greatest focus is on the relationships among different fields. Some selected examplesfrom the papers that explore these relationships are:1. A submission containing detailed expositions of the relationships among developers of linear programming, non-linear programming, integer programming, combinatorial optimization, stochastic programming and Monte Carlo methods;2. A submission demonstrating that the tension between cost-benefit analysis and economic theory that continues even today had its beginnings in the 1930s (Samuelson, 1938);3. Submissions demonstrating a strong link of sociobiology to modern network analysis (Nowak, 2006) and to agent based modeling (Axelrod and Hamilton,1981);4. A submission identifying Homans (Homans, 1951) as the first to use matrix realignment in identifying social groups in Social Network Analysis;5. Numerous submissions demonstrating that particular roots have direct impact on numerous modern methods – for one example, OR can be shown to have influenced stochastic optimization, strategy development, dynamic programming, and network theory among other methods of relevance to Engineering Systems.The assignments frequently produce novel observations, including the discovery of“deep roots” of a field, surprising inter-relationships, and apparently deliberateignoring of closely related work, among others.“Deep roots” are those that originate in centuries past. One example is a submissiontracing modern social network analysis back to a stochastic model of social networksdeveloped in 1875 by Francis Galton. A second deep root was illustrated in asubmission chronicling the evolution of cost–benefit analysis in 18th century Franceand its use in the early 19th century by Thomas Jefferson’s Secretary of the Treasury,Albert Gallatin.Surprising inter-relationships were those that created unexpected linkages betweenfields, often through convoluted pathways, individual scholars or unique works. A4 Note that typographical errors in student responses have been corrected when presented here. When they have been edited (either for anonymity or clarity), this is indicated by square brackets.
  10. 10. submission demonstrating a strong linkage between cybernetics and business strategyby emphasizing, among others, the work of Maruyama (Maruyama, 1963) and Boyd(Boyd, 1987) is an example. A second surprising inter-relationship is identified in asubmission demonstrating a strong connection between scientific management(Taylor, 1911) and strategy development (Porter, 1980; Mintzberg, 1990) via theconduits of OR, organizational theory and industrial psychology. In addition to thesedirect and indirect links, the papers often demonstrate substantial conceptual linkagesin novel ways; for example: between a “Engineering Systems framing paper” by JoelMoses (Moses, 2004) and the work of Schumpeter (Schumpeter 1936; Schumpeter1976); and, another submission demonstrating the links from negotiation to gametheory, decision-making and social psychology (Osinga, 2007). Another interesting ifnot surprising example is the influence of cybernetics on social sciences, evidencedby convincing quotations from scholars like Phillips (Phillips, 1954) and Simon(Simon, 1957; Simon, 1962).The concept of “apparently deliberate ignoring” refers to a lack of citation orcollaboration where it would be expected. One submission showed the total absenceof references between four leaders of system dynamics and five leaders of cyberneticsdespite their evolution in close proximity. A quote from the open-ended survey resultsreflects on this unexpected finding, “I was exposed to the complicated relationship (orlack thereof) between Norbert Weiner and Jay Forrester. Despite largely the samesubject material, their lack of collaboration is unusual.”In addition to those noted in individual submissions, some interrelations betweenfields became clear only during the session dedicated to student presentations.Reading and listening to each assignment gave both students and professors a widerappreciation of the breadth of Engineering Systems and the complex interlinking ofits underlying fields. This element of student learning is evidenced by their responsesto survey Question #9 (see Figure 1), in which 86% indicated that they learned a lotfrom listening to their classmates’ presentations.The Importance of Historical Context in the Development of Fields. Severalstudents noted the importance of historical context in shaping the development ofconcepts and fields. For example, in their class presentation, one group noted howEuler’s publication in Latin may have slowed the diffusion of his foundationalcontributions to graph theory. Another student noted, “how different concepts areshaped and forged depending on the historical context (e.g. the birth of OperationsResearch as a consequence of WWII).”Apart from “apparently deliberate ignoring,” the papers also describe how conceptscan be lost in time, or discovered separately by distinct groups of scholars. Manysubmission delineate differences in approaches from different disciplines andfrequently find evidence of lost or delayed conceptual connections (a specificexample arises between de Solla Price’s original work in power laws (see (de SollaPrice, 1965)) and independent “rediscovery” later by researchers from outside of thesocial networks field). This shows that careful cross-disciplinary literature search isnot always practiced as widely as would be desirable.
  11. 11. The Importance of Key Individuals to the Development of Engineering Systems.An important common theme among the assignments was the prominent role ofcertain scholars. As one respondent put it, “Every methodology and root analyzed hadnot only common themes, but common actors in their past.” Collectively, theassignments point to substantial intellectual legacies in multiple fields by the likes ofJay Forrester and John Von Neumann. The authors were surprised by the evidence –in the papers and from the survey – of the singular influence of Herbert Simon amongthese historical roots.In response to the survey (Question 7), students named a maximum of three importantearly contributors to Engineering Systems as a field. Figure 3 depicts the top fivecontributors mentioned: Herbert Simon, Jay Forrester, John Von Neumann, NorbertWiener, and Joseph Schumpeter. Others mentioned include (those with multiplementions are noted in parentheses): R. Ackoff (3), P. Anderson, G. Dantzig, I. de laSola Pool, L. Euler (2), J. Holland (2), H. Kahn, D. Kahneman, J. Little, M. Maier, B.Mandelbroit, J. March, A. Marshall, S. Milgram, P. Morse, K. Popper, H. Raiffa (3),E. Rechtin, P. Romer, L.J. Savage, C. Shannon, C.P. Snow, R. Solow, F. Taylor, A.Tversky, and L. von Bertalanffy. The breadth of fields represented by this group ofscholars attests to the broad foundations of Engineering Systems.Figure 3: Seminal Engineering Systems contributors most cited by survey respondents.5.2 Pedagogy: Value and Limitation of the AssignmentFrom the findings described above, the assignment appears to provide, from thefaculty’s perspective, a valuable vehicle for meeting the two overarching objectives ofthe course: increasing knowledge of Engineering Systems; and increasingunderstanding of research in this field. This section employs the survey results toilluminate the student perspective on the relevance of the assignment to the twolearning objectives, its potential limitations, and its reported value.With respect to the course objectives, that of learning about the field was clearly met.The majority of the qualitative survey responses pertained in some way to learningabout Engineering Systems. Specifically, the assignment taught them aboutEngineering Systems as a field, its boundaries, and its breadth. As one student put it,“I really appreciated the time we devoted to learning more about the history of[Engineering Systems] since I believe it added color and depth to my understandingof the field.” Fifty-five open-ended responses describe specific insights about
  12. 12. concepts and methods related to their chosen fields or to Engineering Systems moregenerally. One survey respondent said in this regard, “It was great. I learned a lotabout my root and methodology and […] I also learned about various other areas ofthought from reading my classmates papers and listening to their presentations.”Students also grew as Engineering Systems scholars, and developed specific researchskills. Again, many of these pertained to specific Engineering Systems methods, butfundamental skills in literature search and citation analysis proved to be an importantlearning outcome. That the students developed these skills is clear from theirsubmissions and was also cited by 71% survey respondents. Some students gainedbroader insights into academic research, e.g., “By encouraging us to look at thelinkages among different strains in research, I gained new insights to the notion ofresearch as a career and an industry. […] the main takeaway was learning about theprocesses by which we have arrived at a new field, and the innovations necessary tobe able to think critically about the massive sociotechnical systems with which we areconcerned.” Others, however, were pleased to learn specifically about their own areaof research, e.g., “The assignment provided a great grounding in ES, an opportunity todig into the literature of one of my areas of research [...].”Not all students were so fortunate as to learn material that applied directly to theirdissertation research. Some students noted this as a limitation of the assignment. Atthis early stage in their doctoral program, it can prove challenging for each student tochoose a relevant root or method. Table 2 in Section 4 gives quantitative evidencerelative to this issue. While 80+% of the respondents remembered new insights, ideas,skills or methodologies they learned from the assignment, only 30-50% used them insubsequent research. Two quotes from the open-ended survey input highlight thisdiscrepancy: • “Not applicable to my research, but history and context for the methods one uses generally is a good thing.” • “The skills gained in performing literature searches and citation analyses were useful. The exercise of research, writing and presentation were good practice. Not “strongly agree” because the content of the paper was quite tangential to my research.”Related to these responses were indications in six open-ended comments about the(possibly excessive) time commitment needed to complete the assignment. Perhapsconversely, two other students critiqued the level of depth of study afforded by theassignment’s format. The remaining critiques cited the limitations of citation analysisand suggested improvements to the assignment wording (e.g., the level of guidance).There were several strong objections to the use of assigned partners, but the majorityof students were pleased to work in pairs (> 70%).Despite these limitations, the majority of students found the assignment to beworthwhile overall (>70%), as shown by their responses to Question 12 (see Figure1). In the words of the students: • “Most valuable assignment I have completed in the doctoral program thus far. It was very time-consuming, but helped to frame what [Engineering Systems] actually is and from where it has emerged.”
  13. 13. • “I really think this was an excellent assignment. It was a great way to explore the key methodologies in engineering systems and their roots. I really learned a lot.”Figure 4 summarizes the author and student perspectives of the learning benefitsrealized by students through their completion of the Historical Roots assignment.Figure 4: Summary of key pedagogical benefits conferred by the Historical Roots assignment6 DiscussionRe-examining the student submissions to the Historical Roots assignment andsurveying the students who completed the assignment produced a broadly consistentset of observations. Specifically, Engineering Systems roots and methodologies areintertwined in a complex fashion and arise from a wide variety of disciplines andfields. Nonetheless, several key individuals have published work which hasprofoundly shaped the field. In particular, the work of Herbert Simon is most notable.Having had an outsized impact on this field is consistent with Simon’s tendency tocross-over strongly between technical disciplines, such as computer science andartificial intelligence, and social sciences, such as economics and social psychology,not to mention his impact on organizational theory and engineering design. Otherhighly cited contributors to the roots of engineering systems including von Neumann,Wiener, Forrester and Schumpeter also exhibited particularly wide-rangingintellectual pursuits and interests.The interdisciplinary nature of Engineering Systems imparts the advantage of insightderived from disciplines in the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences andbusiness. Consequently, however, it is difficult to isolate the impacts of thesedisciplines on the overall field. The origins of Engineering Systems are deep and
  14. 14. varied, with each root bringing the intellectual imprints of its source discipline. Asone might expect, it is often difficult to accurately untangle and definitively establisha clear relationship between a particular root and a modern methodology. This is not acritical problem except to budding scholars attempting to learn enough about this fieldto become practicing and viable researchers. One key challenge for the developmentof Engineering Systems as a vibrant discipline may revolve around the need toeducate researchers just starting out in the field. The evidence reviewed in this paper,and summarized in Figure 4, indicates that the “Historical Roots” assignmentdiscussed herein can serve as a highly useful – but imperfect – tool for meeting thiscrucial challenge.Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge several colleagues whoprovided significant insight, particularly with respect to the survey instrument; bothLisa D’Ambrosio and Roberto Perez-Franco offered much appreciated advice in thisarea. We would also like to acknowledge our four student survey pre-testers,particularly Judy Maro for her comprehensive review of the instrument and an earlierdraft of this paper. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the 47 MIT EngineeringSystems Division students from ESD.83’s 2008-2011 classes for their diligent andinnovative efforts on the assignment and for their participation in the assignmentsurvey.References Axelrod, R., and Hamilton W.D. (1981), The Evolution of Cooperation. Science, 211, pp. 1390-1396. Boyd, J.R. (1987), A Discourse on Winning and Losing. Unpublished set of briefing slides available at http://www.ausairpower.net/JRB/intro.pdf. (last accessed on 18 February 2012) Cameron, B., Pertuze, J. (2009), Disciplinary Links between Scientific Management and Strategy Development. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division. Working Paper Series (ESD-WP-2009-19). http://esd.mit.edu/wps/2009/esd-wp- 2009-19.pdf. (last accessed on 18 February 2012) de Solla Price, D.J. (1965), Networks of Scientific Papers. Science, pp. 510-515. Dillman, D., Smyth, J., and Christian, L. (2009) Internet, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 3rd Ed. Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ. Homans, G.C. (1951), The Human Group. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Open Courseware, http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/engineering-systems-division/esd-83-doctoral-seminar-in- engineering-systems-fall-2009/. (last accessed on 10 February 2012) Maruyama, M. (1963), The Second Cybernetics: Deviation Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes. American Scientist, 51, pp. 164-179. Moses, J. (2004), “Foundational Issues in Engineering Systems: A Framing Paper.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Monograph, Available at: http://esd.mit.edu/symposium/pdfs/monograph/framing.pdf. (last accessed on 18 February 2012)
  15. 15. Mintzberg, H. (1990), The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises of Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal, 11, pp. 171-195. Nowak, M.A. (2006), Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science, 314, pp. 1560- 1563. Osinga, F.P. (2007), Science, Strategy, and War. Routledge, New York. Phillips, A.W. (1954), Stabilization Policy in a Closed Economy. The Economic Journal, vol. 64, no. 254, pp. 290-323. Porter, M.E. (1980), Competitive Strategy. Free Press, New York. Roberts, C., Magee, C., Sussman, J., (2009), Teaching an Engineering Systems Doctoral Seminar: Concepts and Structure. Second International Symposium on Engineering Systems. Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 15-17, 2009. Available at: http://esd.mit.edu/symp09/day3.html. (last accessed on 18 February 2012) Samuelson, P. (1938), "A Note on the Pure Theory of Consumers Behaviour." Economica, 5, pp. 61-71. Santen, N., Wood, D. (2008), Linking Historical Roots and Current Methodologies of Engineering Systems. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division. Working Paper Series (ESD-WP-2008-22). http://esd.mit.edu/wps/2008/esd-wp- 2008-22.pdf. (last accessed on 18 February 2012) Schumpeter, J. (1936), The Theory of Economic Development. Trans. Redvers Opie. 2nd Ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Schumpeter, J. (1939), Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical, and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process. McGraw-Hill, New York. Schumpeter, J. (1976), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Harper Perennial, New York. Simon, H. (1957), Models of Man. Wiley, New York. Simon, H. (1962), The Architecture of Complexity. In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106, pp. 467-482. Taylor, F. (1911), The Principles of Scientific Management. Harper & Brothers, New York.This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to CreativeCommons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.

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