Cmmi adptando cmmi a proyectos pequeños weinberg[1]

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  • Scope to meet project and organization needs Reduce Formality
  • Scope to meet project and organization needs Reduce Formality
  • Size alone can be intimidating
  • * * Used for FAR – Functional Area Representative sessions in CMM Assessments (CBA IPI) CMM Based Assessment – Internal Process Improvement IR&D / Not Deliverable / Can’t Afford Process Everyone would try to be a small project
  • Product based - Ex: Develop SRS – Use Practice 9 “requirements” (When reading the process standard, apply only the paragraphs that relate to the product). Not scoped efficiently for small projects Arguments during SQA audits  Excessive tailoring *
  • Properly scoped Tried not to include items which would end up being tailored out by most small programs. Add procedure (or portion) from EMS Enterprise Management System (IPDS based, CMMI compliant, Full Directive system) for Customer Reviews – Plan the review, determine objectives, send out materials in advance, dry run, etc.  Reduce tailoring, time for tailoring, keeps directives short and to the point – Additions rarely happen Documents requirements in Excel spreadsheet  less formal communication required. Worked hard on wordsmithing SQA Engineer who is also a lawyer and I worked on the wording – minimized confusion and tailoring – CR’s to improve wording – also helped with page count Exception – tailoring report, metrics tool ISO a site requirement for all programs No PBA IPI – Working toward CMMI
  • Overall process – we call procedure
  • For this and the next few charts, streamlined process represents portion of the overall chart for items covered by this procedure
  • These are often upgrades to existing projects or products
  • Please provide also email any suggestions or improvements


  • 1. Adapting Small ProjectsProcesses to CMMIKen WeinbergEl Segundo, CAkiweinberg@raytheon.comNovember 19, 2003
  • 2. The Problem• Standards (CMM, CMMI, ISO, Corporate Initiatives) written for large programs• Organization processes derived from these standards• Small projects can follow good process, but – Often find “process” intimidating – Do not need as much formal communication among team members – Cannot afford to produce enough artifacts to easily pass an appraisal – Metrics used to convey program status to management (generally not used to manage program) Page 2
  • 3. Small Project Process Goals• Scoped to include only directives used by most small projects• Consistent with full process• Short and Simple – Project buy-in – Supplemental non-directive guidelines and templates• Comply with intent of appropriate standards (CMM, CMMI, ISO, Corporate Initiatives) – Project audited to tailored process – Not audited to standards• Use phased implementation – by Discipline – Software Engineering, Systems Engineering, CM/DM … Page 3
  • 4. The Results for Software (CMM) Full Process Small ProcessDirectives 122 12Pages 436 37Paragraphs 666 100Tailoring Report Pages 38 2 Page 4
  • 5. A typical small software project is… • ≤ 3 Software developers for a year ≅ 10,000 Hours • ≤ $5M project cost • Often are: – Company Funded – Software is not deliverable – Reuse into another project is not anticipated – Demo’s • Generally not focus candidates for assessments/ appraisals • Often resistant to “process” • Criteria required to use process – approved by Management • Micro projects (<500 hours) – Recommended tailoring/scoping Page 5
  • 6. History• Initial small process – Based on products: Requirements Document, Test Plan, VDD, etc. – Used only portions of directives related to products – Good Start… But • Still uses large process • Unclear which portions applied • Non-uniform process – not applied consistently • Not conducive to process improvement • Not Compliant with standards• Lessons Learned fed into subsequent releases of small and full process Page 6
  • 7. The Solution – Implemented for Software• Process for planning, managing and executing small software projects – Scoped from full process to cover characteristics used by most small projects – Procedure and 11 Work Instructions – Combine directives where practical • Within Discipline (Preliminary and Detailed Design) • Multi-Discipline (Peer Reviews) – Used “self-contained” or in conjunction with other disciplines (full process, for now)• Eliminates directives not used by most small projects, but allows for their inclusion when necessary (e.g. Formal Customer Reviews)• Generic wording – Document Requirements in SRS  Document Requirements – SOW  Tasks• Almost no required formats Page 7
  • 8. Small Project Metrics• Project Overview• Accomplishments Summary• Problem Summary• Project Schedule• Risk Status• Earned Value• Staffing and Management Effort• Defect Analysis• Scope Change• Lessons Learned and Implemented• Productivity Measurement• Software Size Trend• Software Requirements Volatility Page 8
  • 9. Small Project Software Process Overall Process Planning Development Support Work Work Work Instructions Instructions Instructions Page 9
  • 10. Small Project Software Process Overall Procedure •Criteria to Determine if Applicable •Establishes Structure •Roles and Responsibilities •Metrics and Management Reporting •Process Streamlined •Directives 10  1 •Pages 82  4 •Paragraphs 64  12 Page 10
  • 11. Small Project Software Process • Small Project Planning •Determine Contractual/Program Reqts •Determine Tasks (SOW) •Negotiate Budget Planning •Develop Schedule Work •Participate in Program Level PlanningInstructions •SDP, SQP, SCMP, Training Plan • Process Tailoring •Tailoring Instructions and Guidelines •Tailoring Codes •“Red-Lined” Process •Management Approval Process Streamlined: Directives 14  2 Pages 95  20 Paragraphs 50  11 Page 11
  • 12. Small Project Software Process• Requirements • Coding •Allocation of system •Develop Coding Stds requirements to software •Generate Code •Generate software •Document requirements •Resource Utilization •Document software, •Review and Control interface requirements, Development • Integration traceability and Test •Review and Control Work Instructions •Plan Testing• Design •Document in STP/STD •Generate Design •Traceability •Document •Test Report •Resource Utilization •Process Streamlined: •Review •Directives 17  4 •Pages 48  8 •Paragraphs 110  28 Page 12
  • 13. Small Project Software Process• Engineering Repository and SupportDocumentation •SEN, SDFs, VDD• Software Configuration Management Support• Peer Reviews Work• Software Quality Engineering Instructions• Project Management Team• Process Streamlined •Directives 34  5 •Pages 114  14 •Paragraphs 220  40 Page 13
  • 14. Software Testing - Full Process• Unit Testing Procedure – Unit Test Procedure and Report Product Standard Work Instruction• Integration and Testing Procedure – Regression Testing Work Instruction – Build Plan Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Integration and Test Procedure Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Integration and Test Report Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Integration and Testing Guideline Work Instruction• CSCI Testing Procedure – Software Test Plan Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Test Description Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Test Report Product Standard Work Instruction – Software Test Plan Guideline Work Instruction – Software Test Description Guideline Work Instruction – Software Test Report Guideline Work Instruction Page 14
  • 15. Small Project Testing• Plan testing. Determine extent of testing, whether to combine unit, integration, CSCI testing.• Document test planning. Create test plan or include in ENB: – The test environment – Background information/overview – Schedules – Requirements traceability – Individual tests to demonstrate compliance to requirements – Control item tested, including COTS• Create test description: TP and TD may be combined or included in ENB: – Test preparations – hardware and software – Test cases, descriptions, procedures – Requirements addressed – Prerequisite conditions – Inputs, Expected results, Evaluation criteria – Assumptions and constraints – Requirements traceability Page 15
  • 16. Small Project Testing (continued)• For each defined level of testing, execute test procedures and record results. – Ensure any necessary setup and calibration of test equipment. – Maintain test history log. Record data from each test, including P/F. – Evaluate test results, make corrections and retest, as necessary. – Document and report non-conformances. Classify defects.• Create a Test Report. TP, TD, and TR may be combined or included in ENB: – Test results Overview/assessment – Problems encountered – Detailed test results or test log (may be annotated TD) – Deviations from test cases/procedures• Peer reviews of TP, TD, and TR.• Control test products: Ensure consistency with other products Page 16
  • 17. Micro Sized Projects – Really small • <500 hours • Tailor small project software process per scope of project • Emphasis on Requirements Management, Testing and Configuration Management • Key planning events • Limited Metrics • Use of legacy plans/documents Page 17
  • 18. Results of CMM software projects• Initially piloted on 3 programs  Deployed on over 40 programs• Feedback incorporated in subsequent releases (and into full process)• Overwhelming positive response from PMs, SQE, Business Units, and Line and Project Management• Tailoring time for software reduced from an average of 160 staff-hours to average of 4 staff hours• Used in Seven Engineering Centers – Five non-software centers were also not process oriented• Adapted for use on micro size projects (200-500 hours) Page 18
  • 19. Summary• Goals: – ISO 9000, IPDS, CMM/CMMI Level 3 Compliant for project, as scoped – Not Planned for Focus Projects in Assessments or Appraisals• Method – Start with full process – Scope for small projects – Eliminate items not used by typical small project – Keep it short and simple  Really short and simple – Check for compliance with standards and make adjustments as necessary – Phased implementation• Management Approval Page 19
  • 20. Questions ? ? ? Page 20