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  • 1. Educational Psychology Twelfth Edition Anita Woolfolk © 2013, 2010, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Chapter 1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology
  • 3. Overview I. Learning and Teaching Today II. What Is Good Teaching? III. The Role of Educational Psychology Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3
  • 4. What Would You Do? Read “What Would You Do?” • What would you do to help all your students progress and prepare for the achievement tests? • How would you make use of the intern so that both the intern and your students learn? • How could you involve the families of your non-Englishspeaking students and of students with learning disabilities to support their children’s learning? Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4
  • 5. Objectives 1.1: Describe the key elements and requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. 1.2: Discuss the essential features of effective teaching. 1.3: Describe the methods used to conduct research in the field of educational psychology. 1.4: Recognize key theories of development and learning that influence educational practice. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5
  • 6. Learning and Teaching Today Students Today • Dramatic Diversity – Language ○ 18% speak language other than English at home – Ethnicity ○ 22% of children are Latino – SES ○ 1 in 5 children lives in poverty • Technology – High levels of technological literacy Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6
  • 7. Learning and Teaching Today Teachers Today • 91% are white. • Teacher’s sense of efficacy – A teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn – Predicts student achievement – Grows from real success with students – Experience and training are essential. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7
  • 8. Learning and Teaching Today No Child Left Behind Act (2002) • Reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary School Act of 1965 • All students in grades 3–8 must take standardized tests once per year. • Schools must make AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress). • A Blueprint for Reform: The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (March, 2010) – Aims to reward excellent teaching and student growth – Stay tuned Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8
  • 9. Learning and Teaching Today Do Teachers Make a Difference? • Teacher-Student Relationships – Positive relationships are associated with school success. • The Cost of Poor Teaching – Ineffective teaching has long-lasting affects on academic gains. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9
  • 10. What Is Good Teaching? Is Teaching a Science or an Art? • Beware of either/or choices. • Teachers must be: – Able use a range of strategies – Flexible and inventive – Knowledgeable about their students Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-10
  • 11. What Is Good Teaching? Differentiated Instruction • Going beyond accommodating learner differences to seeing diversity as an array of strengths on which to build • Creating curriculum that is – Focused – Engaging – Demanding – Important – Scaffolded Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-11
  • 12. What Is Good Teaching? Beginning Teachers • Concerns Classroom management – Motivating students – Accommodating students with differences – Evaluating student work – Dealing with parents – Getting along with other teachers – • New Teacher: ”How am I doing?” • Experienced Teacher: ”How are the students doing?” • Educational psychology provides new teachers the foundation they need. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-12
  • 13. The Role of Educational Psychology Educational Psychology • In the Beginning – Educators and psychologists observing children in classrooms • Today – Research on teaching and learning – Child/adolescent development – Motivation • What happens when someone teaches something to someone else in some setting? Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-13
  • 14. The Role of Educational Psychology Is It Just Common Sense? • Principles may seem obvious, but are the results of rigorous research. • Often, common-sense responses may not be the best for students. • Educational psychology is a field dedicated to the study of teaching and learning. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-14
  • 15. The Role of Educational Psychology Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning • Descriptive Studies – Survey results – Interview responses – Video or audio of classroom interactions • Correlation Studies – Ask: What is the relation between two variables? Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-15
  • 16. The Role of Educational Psychology Using Research • Experimental Studies – Random assignment – Cause-and-effect relationships – Quasi-experimental studies • Single-Subject Experimental Design – Examines the impact of an intervention • Microgenetic Studies – Study cognitive processes in the midst of change Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-16
  • 17. The Role of Educational Psychology Using Research • The role of time in research – Short-term observations – Longitudinal studies • Teachers as researchers – Action research (problem-solving investigation) Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-17
  • 18. The Role of Educational Psychology Scientifically Based Research • NCLB: Educational programs and practices receiving federal funds must be based on “scientific research.” – Systematic observation or experiments – Rigorous data analysis procedures – Clearly described and repeatable – Must be peer reviewed Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-18
  • 19. The Role of Educational Psychology Theories for Teaching • Principle: an established link between two or more factors – Principles will help you with specific problems. • Theory: an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and to make predictions about the results of future experiments” – Theories will provide new ways of thinking about problems. • Hypothesis: a prediction of what will happen in a research study based on previous research Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-19
  • 20. The Role of Educational Psychology The Research Cycle • Clear hypothesis or questions • Systematic gathering and analyzing data • Improving theories based on results • Asking new questions Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-20
  • 21. The Role of Educational Psychology Supporting Student Learning • Two groups of variables are directly linked to student achievement: – Student personal factors – Socio-contextual factors • Educational psychology provides a base for developing knowledge and skills to support both groups. Woolfolk Educational Psychology, 12e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-21