Sophies World
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Sophies World






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Sophies World Sophies World Presentation Transcript

  • What is Philosophy? Love of knowledge? Wonder?
  • Archetype Metaphor for Western Philosophy: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
    • Philosophy explores the meaning of reality and illusion, and faith and reason
    • Philosophical Quest
    • Sophie’s questions:
      • Who are you?
      • Where does the world come from?
      • Who is Hilde Knag?
  • II. Top Hat
    • Why are children philosophers?
    • Why does Sophie find education boring?
    • Metaphor of the white rabbit and the hat:
        • “ We know that the world is not all sleight of hand… because we are here in it” (p. 14).
        • What does the rabbit represent?
        • Where/what are we?
    • Aristotle: “All men by nature desire to know.”
    • The potential for wonder is frustrated by habit.
      • Wordsworth: “The child is father of the man.”
  • Functions of Myth
    • Instill a sense of wonder in the mystery of the universe
    • Explain the natural world
    • Support and validate moral system and social culture
    • Guide people through life
    • Danger of myth is its power.
    • Philosophy must rely on reason as well as myth
  • The Natural Philosophers
    • Sophie’s Questions:
      • Is there a basic substance?
      • Can water be changed to wine?
      • Can a frog come from the earth and water?
    • Philosophical project: Explain change and motion
    • Three philosophers of Miletus believed in a single basic substance
  • Natural Philosophers
    • Thales = water
    • Anaximander = divine matter; boundless
    • Anaximenes = air
    • Parmenedes: all is permanent
    • Heraclitus: all is in flux
    • Basic elements: air, water, earth, fire
    • Empedocles: Source of nature cannot be a single element
    • Anaxagoras: seeds ordered by intelligence
  • Democritus & Legos
    • Atomic theory
    • Invisible substances linked in various combinations “eternal, immutable, and indivisible”
    • Sense perception: We perceive the moon when “moon atoms” penetrate the eye.
    • Nothing can change; nothing can come out of nothing; nothing is ever lost; therefore, Nature MUST consist of infinitesimal building blocks that can join and separate and join again.
  • Fatalism
    • Sophie’s questions:
      • Is there fate?
      • Does God punish the wicked here?
      • Does history have a purpose?
      • What governs history? If God or Fate, then there is no free will.
      • What is the role of free will?
      • Oracle at Delphi: Man’s place “Know thyself”
      • Hippocrates: “Anima sana in corpore sano.”
    • (Hermes - the messenger)
      • Hermetic -- hidden, inaccessible
  • 450 BC — Athens center for new philosophical project
    • Democracy
    • Perceptions of Right and Wrong
    • Sophists
    • Pragmatists
    • Skepticism: Man cannot know the truth about the riddles of nature.
  • The measure of all things
    • Protagoras (485-410 BC): “Man is the measure of all things.”
    • Can this concept lead to hubris?
    • What is natural? What is socially induced?
    • Perceptions flow, vary from place to place
    • No absolute norms for what is right or wrong (man is measure).
    • Sophocles in his dramas provides a rebuttal to this moral relativism.
  • Socrates (479-390 BC)
    • Rationalist
    • Persona for Plato
    • Socratic irony: feign ignorance to expose weakness in opponent’s argument - gadfly
    • Eternal and absolute rules for right and wrong
    • Human reason/common sense is eternal and immutable
    • Socratic ideas:
      • Is there such a thing as natural modesty?
      • Wisest is he who knows he does not know.
      • True insight comes from within.
      • He who knows what is right will do right.
  • Diagram of Soul and State
  • “One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing.”
    • Sophist is the “know-it-all”
    • The philosopher admits ignorance
    • The most subversive people are those who ask questions.
    • Child is the philosopher king because he/she is not afraid to ___.
    • People are indifferent - buried deep in the rabbit’s fur
    • Wisdom begins with ignorance
    • Foundation of knowledge lies in man’s reason.
    • Why did Socrates and Jesus have to die?
  • Elements of Socratic Philosophy
    • Right insight leads to right action
      • Insight lies in reason, not in society
    • Can one do wrong and be happy?
      • A slave has the same common sense as a man of rank.
  • Plato
    • Sophie’s tasks: What is the project?
      • Can you make 50 identical cookies?
      • All horses are the same. Why?
      • Does man have an immortal soul?
      • Are men and women equally sensible?
  • Plato 428-347 BC
    • Project: Theory of “ideas”
      • A “reality” that is eternal and immutable
      • World of ideas/forms — world soul
        • True knowledge only of things understood with reason
        • No true knowledge of world of sense, which is constantly changing
      • World of sense and of the soul
      • All natural phenomena are merely shadows of eternal ideas/forms
      • Everything tangible (4 elements) flows; the IDEA alone is eternal
      • Do we have to see something to have an “idea” of it?
  • Mimetic theory
    • Art imitates what? Life, nature, reality?
    • Implication for Sophie’s World ?
    • Will lead to Renaissance pragmatism and Romantic expression
    • Plato argues the poet is father of lies.
      • Yet the “lie” takes us closer to the idea
    • What is the philosophical purpose for Alberto’s reaction to Sophie’s “break-in”?
    • Proof of Sophie’s intellectual growth:
      • Curious
      • Uses senses & ideas/reason
      • Anticipates Aristotle’s objection to Plato
    • Plato — reason (Imagination is reality)
    • Aristotle — senses: Idea “flows” but has no existence of its own; forms are in the THINGS. (Nature is reality)
    • No innate ideas, but we have innate faculty to organize and classify— Innate Reason
    • Summed up and categorized natural philosophy
      • pigeonholing
    • Last great Greek philosopher; first great European biologist
    • From Macedonia; father a physician
    Aristotle 384-322 BC
  • Aristotle’s Logic
    • Material - block of wood
    • Formal - idea of table
    • Efficient - carpenter
    • Final - reason for the table being made
    • Moisture in air
    • Nature of water to fall
    • Moisture cools
    • Because plants & animals need it
    • Potentiality: Matter: Act: Form
      • Chicken’s egg always has potentiality to become a chicken; it cannot become a goose.
    Laws of causality: Why does it rain?
  • Aristotle’s Logic
    • Syllogism
      • All A is C; all B is A; therefore, all B is C
      • Deductive reasoning; general to specific
    • God as pure ACT (Aquinas will define as the first cause) — the formal cause
  • Aristotle’s Ethics
    • Man can achieve happiness only by using all his abilities and capabilities.
    • Three forms of happiness:
      • Life of pleasure
      • Life as free & responsible citizen
      • Life as a thinker/philosopher
    • Golden mean
    • Literary criticism: catharsis, pity, fear, tragic hero
    • Balance is key to happiness:
      • Neither cowardly, nor rash, but courageous
  • Aristotle’s Politics
    • Man is a political animal
      • Highest form of human fellowship is in the state
    • Three good forms of constitution:
      • Monarchy NOT tyranny
      • Aristocracy NOT oligarchy
      • Polity (Democracy) NOT mob
  • Hellenism
    • Decline of Athens
    • Alexander the Great (356-323 BC)
      • Macedonia tutored by Aristotle
      • Defeated Persians
      • Linked Egypt, the Orient (to India), & Greece
    • Religion, philosophy, and science
      • Doubt and uncertainty
      • Teachings of mankind’s salvation from death
      • Philosophy should free man from pessimism
      • Religion & philosophy blend
    • Syncretism
  • Cynics, Stoics & Epicureans
    • True happi-ness is within
    • Antisthenes - frugal
    • Diogenes - lived in a barrel, with a stick and a bread bag; told Alexander the Great, “Move to one side - you’re blocking the sun.”
    • Stoa - portico
    • meetings
    • 300 B.C. founded by Zeno
    • Role of reason and acceptance of suffering
    • Cicero, Seneca
    • Garden philosophers
    • Aristippus -“The highest good is pleasure”
    • Stressed reason and moderation
    • Later - self-indulgence
  • Neo-platonists
    • Plotinus (205-270 A.D.)- Alexandria (Egypt)
    • Mystic
    • Came to Rome
    • Dualist: relationship between body/soul
    • The light = the One = God
    • Darkness = the absence of light
    • Soul illuminated by the light of the one (good)
    • Different from Plato: All is part of the One, even the most chained prisoner in the cave
    • Romantics, Transcendentalists
  • Two Cultures
    • Indo-Europeans
    • Polytheistic
    • Transmigration of soul (Plato)
    • View of history as a cycle - ring structure (Homer, Plato, Beowulf; Hindu cycle)
    • Reliance on sight & insight - Pictorial representations of gods
    • Semites & Monotheism
    • Judaism, Christianity, Islam (OT written in Hebrew)
    • Greek influence (NT in Greek)
    • Linear view of history
    • Reliance on hearing - No images of God (Christianity shows Greco-Roman influence with images)
    Is the Good of Plato the God of Christianity? By 400 AD entire Hellenistic world was Christian.
  • Hegel’s Dialectic at Work
    • THESIS: Greco-Roman world of Homer, Plato, Aristotle and Sophocles
    • ANTITHESIS: Biblical- Old and New Testaments
    • SYNTHESIS: The Middle Ages makes the synthesis which will generate an antithesis during the Renaissance: humanism
  • Middle Ages
    • 380 AD Christianity becomes official Roman religion (Constantine)
    • 476 Western Rome destroyed
    • 529 Plato’s Academy closed
    • Monasteries - education
    • 1200 - cathedrals and universities
    • 1400 - transition to Renaissance
    • PROJECT: Are belief and knowledge compatible?
  • Divisions of Old Roman Empire MIDDLE AGES an intellectual turning point - confluence of three-part river of philosophy Aristotelian Platonic Neoplatonism 632 death of Mohammed Fell to Turks -1453 Pope Muslim Culture Greek Christianity Latin Christian ARABIA CONSTANTINOPLE ROME
  • Augustine Aquinas
    • 354-430 North Africa
    • To Carthage, Rome, Milan, Hippo
    • Stoicism, Neoplatonism, then Christianity
    • City of God = Church
    • Who can be saved? Preordained
    • Divine will
    • Christianized Plato - the IDEA in Divine Mind before creation
    • 1225-1274
    • Translated Aristotle from Greek and Arabic to Latin
    • Aristotelian logic - faith and reason are needed
    • Synthesis of faith and reason
    • Two routes to ONE TRUTH
    • Revival of humanism - desire for education
    • “ Man is formed” - Power of individual
    • Split between church and science/philosophy
    • Restore Rome - St. Peter’s
    • Martin Luther (1483-1546): Man receives “free” redemption through faith alone
        • Emphasizes personal relationship with God
    • Start of scientific age
    • Printing press
    • Francis Bacon - rebellion against Aristotle - Empiricism “Knowledge is power.” - Man beginning to control nature
    • Idea that God is infinite; therefore in all things
    • Copernicus (1543) - new astronomy heliocentric world view
    • Galileo - founder of modern physics - “Measure what can be measured, and make measurable what cannot…” - Inertia Law - parabola - Jupiter’s moons
    • Kepler (1600s) mathematical explanation of solar system’s operation; elliptical orbit
    • Newton (1642-1727) “I stood on the shoulders of giants.” - Law of Universal Gravitation; moon -tides;
  • Baroque
    • A Romantic period: tension, energy, irregularity
    • Carpe diem
    • Rise of theater: illusion vs. reality
    • Idealism vs. Materialism
  • Descartes (1596-16500
    • Socratic-Platonic via St. Augustine
    • Convinced of his own ignorance
    • Father of analytical geometry
    • Father of modern philosophy (hated it)
    • PROJECT: Built a system
      • Wanted reliable, certain knowledge
      • Wanted to solve body/soul;mind/matter dualism “How can you be certain that your whole life is not a dream?”
      • Methodology: Doubt -Cogito ergo sum - I exist
  • Spinoza (1632-1677)
    • Can human life be subject to natural law?
    • Monist - a flower and a poem about a flower are both expressions of the substance but seen from different point of view
    • God’s will is the natural law, the inner cause of all that happens (Stoics)
    • Free will only according to our nature
    • We can achieve an intuitive understanding of the whole -contentment
  • John Locke ( 1632-1704)
    • EMPIRICISM - counters rationalism
    • Knowledge is derived from the senses
    • References Aristotle
    • Blank slate - Tabula rasa
  • Hume (1711-1776)
    • Begins with everyday experiences
    • Man reasons by impressions (immediate) and ideas (recollections)
    • Faith vs. Reason
    • Agnostic
    • Said you cannot prove faith by human reason
    • What is a miracle?
    • White crow - We have not experienced ALL natural laws
  • Berkeley (1685-1753)
    • Irish
    • Denied a material world outside of human consciousness - all is spiritual
    • Empiricist who believed in God (Lockean)
    • We exist in the mind of God who causes everything to occur
    • Questions material reality, time & space
    • Can we prove that the material world exists?
      • I touch, feel, etc
      • Ideas exist
      • God orders
      • We perceive the effects - ideas
  • Bjerkely - Review
    • Pre-Socratics attempted to identify basic substance at root of all change
    • Berkeley is empiricist who shares the idea (spirit) with rationalists
    • Aristotle established the course for later empiricists
    • Plotinus : “We ourselves are that divine mystery closest to God in our own soul.”
  • Kant (1724-1804)
    • Devout Christian
    • Duty
    • Synthesized rational (Descartes) and empirical traditions (Locke)
    • We begin with sense perception, but our mind plays a major role in its ordering
    • Transcendental- where both reason and experience fall short, faith fills the vacuum
    • Reason cannot alone prove the existence of God
    • When we obey conscience, we make our own moral law
  • Romanticism
    • Feeling, imagination, experience, yearning
    • Rousseau, Spinoza, Berkeley - philosophical fathers of Romanticism
    • The artist is like God - Expressive Theory
    • Mystery of nature beyond reason
    • Schelling’s world spirit: The world is IN God; God is aware of some of it, but not all.
    • Can the created conceive of that which the creator has not imagined?
  • Hegel
    • Child of German Romantic movement
    • Wanted to get philosophy down to earth again
    • Romantic spirit evolves through history (Plato)
    • All knowledge is human knowledge - subjective and dynamic
    • History has a consciousness, and it develops toward self-awareness
  • Hegel’s Dialectic
    • Thesis - God knows all
    • Antithesis - Man can (should?) rebel
    • Synthesis - Should man leave the garden? Will leaving cause contact with the shadow?
    • We think dialectically by relying on senses (Locke) and reason (Descartes)
    • Stages of consciousness of world spirit
      • Subjective spirit - world soul first aware in individual
      • Objective spirit - world and state
      • Absolute spirit - culmination in religion and philosophy
      • Philosophy is the mirror of the world soul or religion
  • Kierkegaard
    • Christian Existentialist
    • Rejects Hegel and denial of individual responsibility
    • Melancholia
    • Philosophy of existentialism begins with examination of Socratic irony
    • Personal life of individual more important than objective truths
    • Three stages on life’s way
      • Aesthetic - slave of desires - carpe diem - leads to angst
      • Ethical - series of moral choices - like Kant’s duty
      • Religious - leap into the open arms of the living GOD
  • Marx
    • German philosopher, historian, sociologist, economist
    • Studied Democritus, Epicurus (materialism) and Hegel
    • “ Philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways; the point is to change it.”
    • Dialectical materialism - class struggle
      • Conditions of production - resources
      • Means of production - tools
      • Ownership - of resources and tools
    • History of society - dialectic of haves and have-nots
    • Work is positive and productive until worker forced to give his efforts to someone else
    • 1848 - Communist Manifesto
    • “ From each according to his ability; to each according to his need.”
    • Can the perfect state be achieved? (Plato)
    • Animal Farm
  • Naturalism
    • Marx - historical and economic evolution
    • Darwin - organic evolution
      • Where is God?
      • Origin of Species and Descent of Man
    • Freud - psychological evolution
    • Dream psychology
      • Irrational impulses can swamp reason - manifested in dreams but suppressed by society
      • We store memories of previous experiences
        • ID - instinctive pleasures
        • EGO - regulates the ID
        • SUPEREGO - like conscience that determines morality of an action - echo of taboos of parents/society
    Sigmund Freud
    • Unconscious tries to communicate with conscious
    • through dreams
    • Dreams are dramatizations of wish fulfillment
    • Existence takes priority over essence
    • Do we define our own essence?
    • Man must create himself
    • Kierkegaard, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche (“God is dead.”)
    • Sartre
      • There are no eternal values
      • We must make our own choices and accept responsibility
      • The theater of the absurd