Sophies World


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Sophies World

  1. 1. What is Philosophy? Love of knowledge? Wonder?
  2. 2. Archetype Metaphor for Western Philosophy: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave <ul><li>Philosophy explores the meaning of reality and illusion, and faith and reason </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical Quest </li></ul><ul><li>Sophie’s questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where does the world come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is Hilde Knag? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. II. Top Hat <ul><li>Why are children philosophers? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Sophie find education boring? </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor of the white rabbit and the hat: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We know that the world is not all sleight of hand… because we are here in it” (p. 14). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does the rabbit represent? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where/what are we? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: “All men by nature desire to know.” </li></ul><ul><li>The potential for wonder is frustrated by habit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wordsworth: “The child is father of the man.” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of Myth <ul><li>Instill a sense of wonder in the mystery of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Support and validate moral system and social culture </li></ul><ul><li>Guide people through life </li></ul><ul><li>Danger of myth is its power. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy must rely on reason as well as myth </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Natural Philosophers <ul><li>Sophie’s Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a basic substance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can water be changed to wine? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can a frog come from the earth and water? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophical project: Explain change and motion </li></ul><ul><li>Three philosophers of Miletus believed in a single basic substance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Natural Philosophers <ul><li>Thales = water </li></ul><ul><li>Anaximander = divine matter; boundless </li></ul><ul><li>Anaximenes = air </li></ul><ul><li>Parmenedes: all is permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Heraclitus: all is in flux </li></ul><ul><li>Basic elements: air, water, earth, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Empedocles: Source of nature cannot be a single element </li></ul><ul><li>Anaxagoras: seeds ordered by intelligence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Democritus & Legos <ul><li>Atomic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible substances linked in various combinations “eternal, immutable, and indivisible” </li></ul><ul><li>Sense perception: We perceive the moon when “moon atoms” penetrate the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing can change; nothing can come out of nothing; nothing is ever lost; therefore, Nature MUST consist of infinitesimal building blocks that can join and separate and join again. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fatalism <ul><li>Sophie’s questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there fate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does God punish the wicked here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does history have a purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What governs history? If God or Fate, then there is no free will. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the role of free will? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle at Delphi: Man’s place “Know thyself” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocrates: “Anima sana in corpore sano.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Hermes - the messenger) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hermetic -- hidden, inaccessible </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 450 BC — Athens center for new philosophical project <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of Right and Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Sophists </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatists </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism: Man cannot know the truth about the riddles of nature. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The measure of all things <ul><li>Protagoras (485-410 BC): “Man is the measure of all things.” </li></ul><ul><li>Can this concept lead to hubris? </li></ul><ul><li>What is natural? What is socially induced? </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions flow, vary from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>No absolute norms for what is right or wrong (man is measure). </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles in his dramas provides a rebuttal to this moral relativism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Socrates (479-390 BC) <ul><li>Rationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Persona for Plato </li></ul><ul><li>Socratic irony: feign ignorance to expose weakness in opponent’s argument - gadfly </li></ul><ul><li>Eternal and absolute rules for right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Human reason/common sense is eternal and immutable </li></ul><ul><li>Socratic ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there such a thing as natural modesty? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisest is he who knows he does not know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True insight comes from within. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He who knows what is right will do right. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Diagram of Soul and State
  13. 13. “One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing.” <ul><li>Sophist is the “know-it-all” </li></ul><ul><li>The philosopher admits ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>The most subversive people are those who ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Child is the philosopher king because he/she is not afraid to ___. </li></ul><ul><li>People are indifferent - buried deep in the rabbit’s fur </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom begins with ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of knowledge lies in man’s reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Socrates and Jesus have to die? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Elements of Socratic Philosophy <ul><li>Right insight leads to right action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight lies in reason, not in society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can one do wrong and be happy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A slave has the same common sense as a man of rank. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Plato <ul><li>Sophie’s tasks: What is the project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you make 50 identical cookies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All horses are the same. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does man have an immortal soul? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are men and women equally sensible? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Plato 428-347 BC <ul><li>Project: Theory of “ideas” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “reality” that is eternal and immutable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World of ideas/forms — world soul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True knowledge only of things understood with reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No true knowledge of world of sense, which is constantly changing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World of sense and of the soul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All natural phenomena are merely shadows of eternal ideas/forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything tangible (4 elements) flows; the IDEA alone is eternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we have to see something to have an “idea” of it? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mimetic theory <ul><li>Art imitates what? Life, nature, reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Implication for Sophie’s World ? </li></ul><ul><li>Will lead to Renaissance pragmatism and Romantic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Plato argues the poet is father of lies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet the “lie” takes us closer to the idea </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What is the philosophical purpose for Alberto’s reaction to Sophie’s “break-in”? </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of Sophie’s intellectual growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses senses & ideas/reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipates Aristotle’s objection to Plato </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Plato — reason (Imagination is reality) </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle — senses: Idea “flows” but has no existence of its own; forms are in the THINGS. (Nature is reality) </li></ul><ul><li>No innate ideas, but we have innate faculty to organize and classify— Innate Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Summed up and categorized natural philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pigeonholing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last great Greek philosopher; first great European biologist </li></ul><ul><li>From Macedonia; father a physician </li></ul>Aristotle 384-322 BC
  20. 20. Aristotle’s Logic <ul><li>Material - block of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Formal - idea of table </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient - carpenter </li></ul><ul><li>Final - reason for the table being made </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture in air </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of water to fall </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture cools </li></ul><ul><li>Because plants & animals need it </li></ul><ul><li>Potentiality: Matter: Act: Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken’s egg always has potentiality to become a chicken; it cannot become a goose. </li></ul></ul>Laws of causality: Why does it rain?
  21. 21. Aristotle’s Logic <ul><li>Syllogism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All A is C; all B is A; therefore, all B is C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning; general to specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>God as pure ACT (Aquinas will define as the first cause) — the formal cause </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aristotle’s Ethics <ul><li>Man can achieve happiness only by using all his abilities and capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Three forms of happiness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life as free & responsible citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life as a thinker/philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Golden mean </li></ul><ul><li>Literary criticism: catharsis, pity, fear, tragic hero </li></ul><ul><li>Balance is key to happiness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither cowardly, nor rash, but courageous </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Aristotle’s Politics <ul><li>Man is a political animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest form of human fellowship is in the state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three good forms of constitution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy NOT tyranny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy NOT oligarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polity (Democracy) NOT mob </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hellenism <ul><li>Decline of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macedonia tutored by Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated Persians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked Egypt, the Orient (to India), & Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion, philosophy, and science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubt and uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachings of mankind’s salvation from death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy should free man from pessimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion & philosophy blend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syncretism </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cynics, Stoics & Epicureans <ul><li>True happi-ness is within </li></ul><ul><li>Antisthenes - frugal </li></ul><ul><li>Diogenes - lived in a barrel, with a stick and a bread bag; told Alexander the Great, “Move to one side - you’re blocking the sun.” </li></ul><ul><li>Stoa - portico </li></ul><ul><li>meetings </li></ul><ul><li>300 B.C. founded by Zeno </li></ul><ul><li>Role of reason and acceptance of suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero, Seneca </li></ul><ul><li>Garden philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Aristippus -“The highest good is pleasure” </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed reason and moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Later - self-indulgence </li></ul>
  26. 26. Neo-platonists <ul><li>Plotinus (205-270 A.D.)- Alexandria (Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Mystic </li></ul><ul><li>Came to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Dualist: relationship between body/soul </li></ul><ul><li>The light = the One = God </li></ul><ul><li>Darkness = the absence of light </li></ul><ul><li>Soul illuminated by the light of the one (good) </li></ul><ul><li>Different from Plato: All is part of the One, even the most chained prisoner in the cave </li></ul><ul><li>Romantics, Transcendentalists </li></ul>
  27. 27. Two Cultures <ul><li>Indo-Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Transmigration of soul (Plato) </li></ul><ul><li>View of history as a cycle - ring structure (Homer, Plato, Beowulf; Hindu cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on sight & insight - Pictorial representations of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Semites & Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity, Islam (OT written in Hebrew) </li></ul><ul><li>Greek influence (NT in Greek) </li></ul><ul><li>Linear view of history </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on hearing - No images of God (Christianity shows Greco-Roman influence with images) </li></ul>Is the Good of Plato the God of Christianity? By 400 AD entire Hellenistic world was Christian.
  28. 28. Hegel’s Dialectic at Work <ul><li>THESIS: Greco-Roman world of Homer, Plato, Aristotle and Sophocles </li></ul><ul><li>ANTITHESIS: Biblical- Old and New Testaments </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS: The Middle Ages makes the synthesis which will generate an antithesis during the Renaissance: humanism </li></ul>
  29. 29. Middle Ages <ul><li>380 AD Christianity becomes official Roman religion (Constantine) </li></ul><ul><li>476 Western Rome destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>529 Plato’s Academy closed </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries - education </li></ul><ul><li>1200 - cathedrals and universities </li></ul><ul><li>1400 - transition to Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT: Are belief and knowledge compatible? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Divisions of Old Roman Empire MIDDLE AGES an intellectual turning point - confluence of three-part river of philosophy Aristotelian Platonic Neoplatonism 632 death of Mohammed Fell to Turks -1453 Pope Muslim Culture Greek Christianity Latin Christian ARABIA CONSTANTINOPLE ROME
  31. 31. Augustine Aquinas <ul><li>354-430 North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>To Carthage, Rome, Milan, Hippo </li></ul><ul><li>Stoicism, Neoplatonism, then Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>City of God = Church </li></ul><ul><li>Who can be saved? Preordained </li></ul><ul><li>Divine will </li></ul><ul><li>Christianized Plato - the IDEA in Divine Mind before creation </li></ul><ul><li>1225-1274 </li></ul><ul><li>Translated Aristotle from Greek and Arabic to Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotelian logic - faith and reason are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of faith and reason </li></ul><ul><li>Two routes to ONE TRUTH </li></ul>
  32. 32. RENAISSANCE <ul><li>Revival of humanism - desire for education </li></ul><ul><li>“ Man is formed” - Power of individual </li></ul><ul><li>Split between church and science/philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Restore Rome - St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546): Man receives “free” redemption through faith alone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes personal relationship with God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Start of scientific age </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon - rebellion against Aristotle - Empiricism “Knowledge is power.” - Man beginning to control nature </li></ul><ul><li>Idea that God is infinite; therefore in all things </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Copernicus (1543) - new astronomy heliocentric world view </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo - founder of modern physics - “Measure what can be measured, and make measurable what cannot…” - Inertia Law - parabola - Jupiter’s moons </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler (1600s) mathematical explanation of solar system’s operation; elliptical orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Newton (1642-1727) “I stood on the shoulders of giants.” - Law of Universal Gravitation; moon -tides; </li></ul>
  34. 34. Baroque <ul><li>A Romantic period: tension, energy, irregularity </li></ul><ul><li>Carpe diem </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of theater: illusion vs. reality </li></ul><ul><li>Idealism vs. Materialism </li></ul>
  35. 35. Descartes (1596-16500 <ul><li>Socratic-Platonic via St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced of his own ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Father of analytical geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Father of modern philosophy (hated it) </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT: Built a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted reliable, certain knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to solve body/soul;mind/matter dualism “How can you be certain that your whole life is not a dream?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology: Doubt -Cogito ergo sum - I exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RATIONALISM </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Spinoza (1632-1677) <ul><li>Can human life be subject to natural law? </li></ul><ul><li>Monist - a flower and a poem about a flower are both expressions of the substance but seen from different point of view </li></ul><ul><li>God’s will is the natural law, the inner cause of all that happens (Stoics) </li></ul><ul><li>Free will only according to our nature </li></ul><ul><li>We can achieve an intuitive understanding of the whole -contentment </li></ul><ul><li>RATIONALIST </li></ul>
  37. 37. John Locke ( 1632-1704) <ul><li>EMPIRICISM - counters rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is derived from the senses </li></ul><ul><li>References Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Blank slate - Tabula rasa </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hume (1711-1776) <ul><li>Begins with everyday experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Man reasons by impressions (immediate) and ideas (recollections) </li></ul><ul><li>Faith vs. Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Said you cannot prove faith by human reason </li></ul><ul><li>What is a miracle? </li></ul><ul><li>White crow - We have not experienced ALL natural laws </li></ul>
  39. 39. Berkeley (1685-1753) <ul><li>Irish </li></ul><ul><li>Denied a material world outside of human consciousness - all is spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricist who believed in God (Lockean) </li></ul><ul><li>We exist in the mind of God who causes everything to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Questions material reality, time & space </li></ul><ul><li>Can we prove that the material world exists? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I touch, feel, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We perceive the effects - ideas </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Bjerkely - Review <ul><li>Pre-Socratics attempted to identify basic substance at root of all change </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley is empiricist who shares the idea (spirit) with rationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle established the course for later empiricists </li></ul><ul><li>Plotinus : “We ourselves are that divine mystery closest to God in our own soul.” </li></ul>
  41. 41. Kant (1724-1804) <ul><li>Devout Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized rational (Descartes) and empirical traditions (Locke) </li></ul><ul><li>We begin with sense perception, but our mind plays a major role in its ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendental- where both reason and experience fall short, faith fills the vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Reason cannot alone prove the existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>When we obey conscience, we make our own moral law </li></ul>
  42. 42. Romanticism <ul><li>Feeling, imagination, experience, yearning </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau, Spinoza, Berkeley - philosophical fathers of Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>The artist is like God - Expressive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery of nature beyond reason </li></ul><ul><li>Schelling’s world spirit: The world is IN God; God is aware of some of it, but not all. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the created conceive of that which the creator has not imagined? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Hegel <ul><li>Child of German Romantic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to get philosophy down to earth again </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic spirit evolves through history (Plato) </li></ul><ul><li>All knowledge is human knowledge - subjective and dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>History has a consciousness, and it develops toward self-awareness </li></ul>
  44. 44. Hegel’s Dialectic <ul><li>Thesis - God knows all </li></ul><ul><li>Antithesis - Man can (should?) rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis - Should man leave the garden? Will leaving cause contact with the shadow? </li></ul><ul><li>We think dialectically by relying on senses (Locke) and reason (Descartes) </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of consciousness of world spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective spirit - world soul first aware in individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective spirit - world and state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute spirit - culmination in religion and philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy is the mirror of the world soul or religion </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Kierkegaard <ul><li>Christian Existentialist </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects Hegel and denial of individual responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Melancholia </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of existentialism begins with examination of Socratic irony </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life of individual more important than objective truths </li></ul><ul><li>Three stages on life’s way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic - slave of desires - carpe diem - leads to angst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical - series of moral choices - like Kant’s duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious - leap into the open arms of the living GOD </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Marx <ul><li>German philosopher, historian, sociologist, economist </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Democritus, Epicurus (materialism) and Hegel </li></ul><ul><li>“ Philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways; the point is to change it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical materialism - class struggle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions of production - resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of production - tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership - of resources and tools </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>History of society - dialectic of haves and have-nots </li></ul><ul><li>Work is positive and productive until worker forced to give his efforts to someone else </li></ul><ul><li>1848 - Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>“ From each according to his ability; to each according to his need.” </li></ul><ul><li>Can the perfect state be achieved? (Plato) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Farm </li></ul>
  48. 48. Naturalism <ul><li>Marx - historical and economic evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin - organic evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is God? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of Species and Descent of Man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freud - psychological evolution </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Dream psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrational impulses can swamp reason - manifested in dreams but suppressed by society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We store memories of previous experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ID - instinctive pleasures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EGO - regulates the ID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPEREGO - like conscience that determines morality of an action - echo of taboos of parents/society </li></ul></ul></ul>Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Unconscious tries to communicate with conscious </li></ul><ul><li>through dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams are dramatizations of wish fulfillment </li></ul>
  50. 50. EXISTENTIALISM <ul><li>Existence takes priority over essence </li></ul><ul><li>Do we define our own essence? </li></ul><ul><li>Man must create himself </li></ul><ul><li>Kierkegaard, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche (“God is dead.”) </li></ul><ul><li>Sartre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no eternal values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We must make our own choices and accept responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The theater of the absurd </li></ul></ul>