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Basic Six Sigma for Manufacturing

Basic Six Sigma for Manufacturing

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Basics six sigma Basics six sigma Presentation Transcript

  • MFG 6s Over view : Session 1 Define : 1. 6s OverviewSix Sigma e-Academy
  • MFG 6s Black Belt Class Session 1 : Define Six Sigma Overview Six Sigma e-Academy
  • Six Sigma Overview 1st Day  1. Introduction and background of 6s  2. What’s 6s  3. Why 6s, How to Apply Six Sigma e-Academy
  • 1. Introduction and Background of 6s  Why apply 6s  Quality & failure cost  paradigm Shift  Characteristics of 6s  Examples of Major Corporations  Key for Success 6s  6s Propulsion System Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Introduction and Background of Six Sigma  21st Century is … - Limitless competition  One Global market To increase the competitive power Total optimization of R&D, Production,  Business Structure is … Sales and Service is Necessary. - ‘High cost, Low Efficiency  High failure cost Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Quality Management & Six Sigma Total optimization of R&D, Production, Sales and Service “Six Sigma Management” Six Sigma Is necessary !! - Lead by American Companies  Orchestra for a Company - By small group of sections TQM - Toward total solution TQC - Improve Product Quality “Production line focused Improvement” QC - Lead by Japanese Companies Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma History  Bill Smith report : Most of Service called product were from reworked product at the factories.  Hidden Factory and Rolled Throughput Yield concept are induced.  Actual practice strategy by Dr. Mikel Harry.  The Malcolm Baldridge Award of 1988 of Motorola.  After Motorola, Texas Instrument, ABB, Allied Signal, GE., LG Electronics, Polaroid, Nokia, Lockheed Martin, Sony started Six Sigma. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Attractive Point of Six Sigma  From a survey … “Which subject is the most dislike study ?” 1st Accounting KISS = 2nd Statistics  Select the most useful statistics. Keep It Simple Statistically  Apply the improving process of “Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control”.  Use very easy software for statistical approach.  Complicated formula & calculation  Too difficult to understand  Hard to adapt the statistics on real business. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  What is Six Sigma 1. Statistical Measurement : We measure defect rates in all process through an expanding statistical concept, and we can use ‘s’ in measuring process capability. 2. Business Strategy : We gain a competitive edges in Quality, Cost, Customer Satisfaction. 3. Philosophy : We should work Smarter, not harder. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Harvesting the fruit of Six Sigma Sweet Fruit Design For Six Sigma 5s Wall-Improve Design Bulk of fruit Process characterization and optimization 4s Wall-Improve Process Low hanging fruit Seven Basics Tools 4s Wall-Improve Process Ground fruit Logic and Intuition Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Differences between 3s & 6s The 3 sigma Company The 6 sigma Company  Spend 15~25 % of sales dollars on cost of  Spend 5% of sales dollars on cost failure. of failure.  Produces 66.807 defect per-million  Produces 3.4 defect per-million opportunities. opportunities.  Relies on inspection to find defect.  Relies on capable process that don’t  Believe high quality is expensive. produce defect.  Does not have a discipline approach  Knows that the high quality producer to gather and analyze data. is the low cost producer.  Benchmark themselves against their  Uses Measure, Analyze, Improve & Control. competition.  Benchmarks themselves against the beat  Believes 99% is good enough. in the world.  Defines CTQ’s internally.  Believes 99% is unacceptable.  Defines CTQ’s externally. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  The focus of Six Sigma To get results, should we focus our behavior on the Y or X ? CTQ (Y) = F (X1,X2,X3, ……… Xn) Y X  Dependent  Independent  Output  Input-Process  Effect  Cause  Symptom  Problem  Monitor  Control Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Measurement get Attention  We don’t know what we don’t know.  If we can’t express what we know in the form of numbers, we really don’t know much about it.  If we don’t know much about it, we can’t control it.  If we can’t control it, we are at the mercy of chance. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Achieving Operational Excellence The Chain of Causation  Our survival is independent upon expanding the business.  Our business growth is largely determined by customer satisfaction.  Customers satisfaction is governed by quality, price and delivery.  Quality, price and delivery is controlled by process capability.  Our process capability is greatly limited by variation.  Process variation leads to an increase in defects, cost and cycle time.  To eliminate variation, we must apply the right knowledge.  In order to apply the right knowledge, we must first acquire it.  To acquire new knowledge means that we must have the will to survive. Summary The Goal Of Six Sigma  Defect reduction  Yield Improvement  Improve Consumer satisfaction  Higher Net Income What is Six Sigma  Statistical Measurement  Business Strategy  Philosophy The Language of Six Sigma The Important of Measurement Six Sigma e-Academy
  • Six Sigma Overview  1. Introduction and background of 6s 2nd Day  2. What’s 6s  3. Why 6s, How to Apply Six Sigma e-Academy
  • 2. What is Six Sigma ?  What is Six Sigma ?  Statistical meaning of Six Sigma  What is Statistics ?  Quality Level of Six Sigma  Apply Six Sigma  Six Sigma Process Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  What is Six Sigma ? Six Sigma is a rigorous analytical process for solving business problem. Before Finding Problem Rely on Job Logically Improve by Knowledge Experience & And experience of the Job Data Exact & Effective Decision After Input Data Analyze based On the Data Using Job Analysis Experience & Experiment Statistical Process Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Statistical Meaning of Six Sigma Population & Sample Average : m Standard Deviation : S(s) Population Sample (n=10) Average : x Standard Deviation : s (s) Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  What is Statistics ? An application theory and method to reach appropriate and wise decission in unknown circumstance Population and Sample : Measure 10 samples ( Spec : 100 + 4 ) N = 1000 Sample We might say population is good because all the sample’s data are located between LSL and USL. But if we use normal distribution then this population has the probability of 28,000 PPM defect – this Is “Epidemic” quality level. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  s (Sigma) 6s  It is a letter from the Greek Alphabet.  It is used to present the variation of a process. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Statistical Meaning of Six Sigma 3s Level Mean (m) USL Probability Of a defect 6.68% s 3s s level (Z level) Statistical index relating how much the limit is (are) apart from the target or average Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Statistical Meaning of Six sigma 6s Level Mean (m) USL Probability Of a defect 3.4 PPM s 6s  When the variation is reduced so six standard deviation can be fitted to the specification limit, we Call it Six Sigma level  Six Sigma permits only 3.4 PPM. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Quality Level of Six Sigma S-Level PPM (Z level) 6 3.4 Stretch Goal ! 5 233 3.4 PPM 4 6,210 ( Present ) 3 66,807 1 308,537  ( Shift 1.5s ) Process Capability Practical meaning of “ 99% Good ”  20,000 lost articles of mail per-hour.  Unsafe drinking water almost 15 minutes per day.  5,000 incorrect surgical operations per week.  2 short or long landings at most major airports each day.  200,000 wrong drug prescription each year.  No electricity for almost 7 hours each month. (Resources : based on the USA) Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  What is Six Sigma Activity ?  In all design, manufacturing and services process.  Statistical tool & process for applying Six Achieving Sigma. 3.4 PPM (3.4 defects per Million)  To find factors causing defects. ZST = 6.0, ZLT = 4.5  Applying analysis & improvement.  Defect reduction, increased yield & PPM  Parts Per Million total customer satisfaction. ZST  Short term Z value  Management innovation tool ZLT  Long term Z value contributing to management output. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Apply Six Sigma Six sigma is a tool that is applied to all business system, Design, Manufacturing, Sales and Service. R&D Guarantee for design completion R&D  Selecting CTQ to meet customer needs. 6s  Deciding reasonable tolerance. R&D  Guarantee CTQ’s through capability analysis. MFG Quality Assurance in manufacturing stage  Improve serious problem. 6s  Real time monitoring system Sales & MFG  CTQ Control system. SVC Trans. MFG Quality Assurance in manufacturing stage SVC 6s 6s  Improve cycle time and accuracy.  Cost improvement. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process  Clarifying the improvement target Define - Forecast the improvement effect. - CTQ selection for product and process.  Understanding process capability for Y Measure - Clarifying measurement method for Y. - Specific description of target.  Clarify Target for Improving Y Analyze - Clarifying factors which affect Y  Screening for the Vital Few Improve - Understanding relationship of vital few. No - Process optimization and confirmation experiment. Is it OK ? Yes  Determine control method for X Control - Build up process control system & audit Vital Few IF THE SOLUTION IS ALREADY KNOWN, JUST DO IT….!! Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [1] Define 1) From Customers Voice Customer Needs Customer Needs Customer Needs Problem … CTQ (Y) = f ( X1, X2, X3, … Xn )  CTQ (Y) * CTQ : Critical – To – Quality Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [1] Define : Project came from interaction … Interactio n Do Need Company Customer Cycle Time Delivery Cost Price Defect Quality Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [1] Define : Project came from interaction … Activity Focus (CTQs)  Quick response (Response time for Customers Call)  Excessive stock  Delay for Delivery  Billing Accuracy  Excessive transportation cost  Kindness for Customer  SVC rate  Scrap / Rework  High production cost … Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [2] Measure Precision Accuracy LSL USL LSL USL Defect ! Defect ! m T T=m Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [3] Analyze Analyze Response Cause CTQ (Y) = f ( X1, X2, X3, … Xn ) X1 proportion  200 X2 proportion  120 Vital Few X3 proportion  30 CTQ (Critical To Quality) = By definition of customers needs / expectations or product function or critical parameter (Spec.). Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [4] Improve Improve Precision & Accuracy LSL USL T=m 6s Level !, 3.4 PPM ! Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Six Sigma Process – [5] Control SPC Process Capability Desired output Controller Samples Input PROCESS Output Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Summary  Statistical meaning of Six Sigma  Quality level of Six Sigma  Apply for Six Sigma - R&D 6s - Manufacturing 6s - Transactional 6s  Six Sigma Process - Define - Measure - Analyze - Improve - Control Six Sigma e-Academy
  • Six Sigma Overview  1. Introduction and background of 6s  2. What’s 6s 3rd Day  3. Why 6s, How to Apply ? Six Sigma e-Academy
  • 3. Why 6s, How to Apply ?  Why apply 6s ?  Quality & failure cost  Paradigm Shift  Characteristics of Six Sigma  Examples of major Corporation  Key of Success 6s  6s Propulsion System Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Why apply 6s ? Improve underlying problems by detailed investigation and use of correct statistical analysis tools. Management Overview Using Correct Analysis 6s is a tool Based on sound Statistical theory. Used software To support and Simplify Highlight small and 6s Statistical Process. Persistent defects 100 PPM Root cause Improvement Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Quality and Failure Cost Quality Index Trend* 100PPM activity Innovative defect SVC Improvement Call rate activities (%) ‘92 ‘94 ‘95 ‘96 ‘2001 * Major product SCV cal rate trend Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Quality and Failure Cost “ Current Quality Failure Cost is the tip of the Iceberg ! ” Inspection Reported Failure Costs SVC Scrap (Main KPI) Failure Rework Design change Sale damage Hidden Failure Costs Long cycle time (not easily measured) Delay Excess Inventory Customer Credit Default Business overheads Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Paradigm Shift Old Belief Internal & External Appraisal & Failure costs Prevention Costs 3s Increased Quality Cost $ Means higher cost Quality improves To warrant high quality which is dependant upon inspection, Losses due to rework and scrap will increase. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Paradigm Shift New Belief Internal & External Appraisal & Failure costs Prevention Costs 3s 4s Increased Quality Cost $ 5s Reduce Total cost ! 6s Quality improves By designing processes that do not produce defects, it is the Concept that losses due to scrap and rework will reduce. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Characteristics Why should we apply 6s Issue Traditional Approach 6s Approach Index -% (Defect rate) - Sigma (s) Data - Discrete data - Discrete + Continuous data Target - Satisfied MFG Process - Customer Satisfaction Range - Spec. outlier - Variation Improvement Method - Experience + Job - Experience + Job + Statistical ability Action - Bottom Up - Top Down Application - MFG Process - Design, MFG, sales, Svc. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Characteristics 6s Benefits & Superiority Decrease cost of loss, improve quality of product & service, satisfies the customer Benefits And clarifies the business output. Superiority  Variety of application  3P* Focus and reasonable index for appraisal  High effect of investment  Clarifies effect for cost  Data Driven Mind & easy to use Statistical Tool * 3P = Product, Process, People Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Characteristics 6s Benefits …… • 6s defines common goal  Innovation involves all • Control factors upstream  Reduces output loss • S/W support statistics  Statistically foolproof • Data analysis experiment  Clarifies indistinct facts • Data based decisions  Excludes wrong ides Allows statistics to be applied to all sectors of business giving people access to solve Difficult problem !!! Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Major Company present 6s drive ITEM MOTOROLA TI GE SONY Introduced 1987 1988 1995 1997 Outcome Q. Cost Down Q. Cost Down Q. Cost down By year 2000 $ 3.2 billion 1988 : 30 % $ 3.8 billion Trained 2000 Black  1993 : 7.4 % belts. Characteristics 6 sigma origin First in Japan (Quality level elevated 100 times in 4 years) Remarks Harmonized Western Top Down Consult with & Oriental Culture Quality Training 6 Sigma Academy The vision of Six Sigma (Mikel Harry) / GE Annual Meeting (’98.2) Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Key for Success By religious passion about 6s … “Tripitaka Koreana” “Bible” Believer Religious Passion Champion * MBB* Six Sigma - Stretch goal -Breakthrough Idea Achievement & Vision -& Implementation Must be concerned if cause changes ! Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Key for Success System  Execute from Top Down • Assertive direction from CEO. • Full understanding of process by TCP, provide clear and consistent drive.  Participation by all Functions • Conduct process redesign of call center, expanding to non manufacturing class without localizing in manufacturing class.  Common measures to make a 6s company • Execution by common language (CTQ, s, Cp, …) • All levels, target indicated by 6s. • Presentation of standard of project activity. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Key for Success 6 sigma success point Method  Begin with Voice of Customer • From customer expectation select CTQ, improve defects which have greatest impact.  Education Program – Practice first • Learn tools and process through practice and input administration result. • Ensure process is thoroughly understood by all participant.  6s Infrastructure • Construct infra structure to ensure project success. • construct ion of organic, systematic system. • Evaluation and award system. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Propulsion System Champion - Formation, responsible for business unit - Establish vision - 6s activity drive - Involvement - Project support Champion Review Guidance, support MBB (Master Black Belt) Project Leader Support request - 6s group target achievement - BB (Black Belt) : Technical Leader - 6s specialist - GB (Green Belt) : 6s Tool applicable person - Project execution Champion review : Manage by Champion, progress reviewed step by step, make decision regarding ideas. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Propulsion System Champion Define Role  Establishment of Vision • 6s target presentation of middle and short term goal. • Theme setting and presentation of overview of activity. - Person responsible • Project direction and target presentation. For business unit performance  6s Activity Drive • Continuous activity drive through strong commitment. • Result verification and transmission with MBB.  Involvement • Monitoring and support through champion Review. • Overcome barriers in achievement of 6s result.  Project Support • Active support at each level of improvement. • Investment decision and resource allocation. • Encourage follow up improved result and control activity, motivation for acceptance of ownership. Ownership of 6s execution and involvement in project activity are very important. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Propulsion System MBB (Master Black Belt) Define Role  Skill Transmitting - 6s Technical leader • Provide guidance for 6s propulsion and is qualified. - 6s as full time Job - MBB selected by champion • With technical background, skill transmission and after completion of MBB level up course, or person holding equivalent qualification. • Share successful points.  6s Result Drive • Project check at each level/stage • Feedback to champion project progress and result status. • Verify fidelity of result.  Project Guidance / Support • 6s education BB/GB guidance. • Assist in solution for barrier issues. • Manage so that improved condition is maintained. Capable MBB choice and continuous Skill Up is very important. Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  6s Propulsion System Belt System Belt Brief Role Master Black Belt - 6s technical leader - BB/GB guidance - Technical background transmit skill - Project completion drive - Verification of result - Education Black Belt - Full time project work - Project execution to resolve neck issues. - Improvement Team Leader - Team member, tool education Green Belt - Part time project work - Project execution to resolve neck issues. - Improvement team leader Six Sigma e-Academy
  •  Summary  Quality and Failure Cost  Paradigm shift  Features of 6 Sigma  Success points for 6 Sigma - System - Methods  6 Sigma Propulsion - Champion, MBB, BB, GB - Belt System. Six Sigma e-Academy