T he 22Immutable Lawsof Ries and Jack TroutBy Al Mar keting
Definitions Immutable – (adjective) Unchanging or unable to change. Law – (noun) A rule which cannot or should not be broken.
. The Law ofLeadership It’s better to be first than it is to be better. The basic issue in marketing is creating a category you can be first in. E.g., most people know who flew across the Atlantic first, but not second. Sometimes called: The First Mover Advantage
The Law of Category If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in. E.g., most people don’t know who flew across the Atlantic third, but they know who the first woman to do that was. Lexus was the first Japanese luxury car
. The Law of the Mind It’s better to be first in the mind than to be first in the marketplace. E.g., Altair 8800 was the first PC, but Apple got first in the mind. IBM was the first software vendor, but now we associate software with…
The Law of Perception Marketing is not a battle of products; it is a battle of perceptions. Is Honda better than Toyota? Is Toyota better than Honda? Which would you rather have? Why?
The Law of Focus The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind. Or when the brand become synonymous with the category E.g., Xerox this, FedEx that, and get me some Kleenex. New ones: iPod & Blackberry
The Law of Exclusivity Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind. What companies do you think of when I say “operating system” or “mustard” or “frozen pizza”?
The Law of the Ladder What strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder. E.g., Avis is 2nd – we try harder. Hardee’s is third or forth, and they try even harder—and trying to find an unoccupied rung Being closer to the top usually leads to risk aversion
The Law of Duality In the long run, every market becomes a two horse race. E.g., Coke v Pepsi, Kodak v Fuji, McDonalds and Burger King. Dell v HP/Compaq
The Law of theOpposite If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader. E.g., Coke is an old soft drink, so Pepsi went successfully for the choice of a new generation.
The Law of Division Over time, a category will divide and become two or more categories. e.g., computers, automobiles, coffee
The Law ofPerspective Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time. Don’t expect results to be instantaneous A successful campaign can resonate for years
The Law of LineExtension There is an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand. Coming soon: Arm and Hammer Cat Food
The Law of Sacrifice You have to give up something in order to get something. E.g., FedEx sacrificed other air freight options for small packages overnight, and owned the word “overnight”. For years Honda focused all its efforts on the Civic (cvcc) and dominated the sub- compact market
The Law of Attributes For every attribute, there is an opposite, effective attribute. E.g., Crest toothpaste fights cavities, but Close Up freshens breath. PC is synonymous with business computing, Apple = creativity
The Law of Candour When you admit a negative, the prospect will give you a positive. E.g., the 1970 VW will stay ugly longer – implies reliability not good looks. Prospects know what the truth is, and they reward honesty UPS’s brown trucks are ugly, but we love the truck
The Law of Singularity In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results. In a military sense, this is called the line of least expectation. Choose the move where you expect the least chance of “surprises”. E.g., the Allied invasion of Normandy.
The Law ofUnpredictability Unless you write your competitors’ plans, you can’t predict the future. It is best to be flexible and ready to react to changes in the market.
The Law of Success Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure. GM was successful into the 70s but continued to lose share thru the 90s, and all that time they assumed they knew what consumers wanted In 1985 IBM assumed they owned the PC market
The Law of Failure Failure is to be expected and accepted. Ford almost lost the company on the Edsel in the 50’s Radio Shack and Apple marketed some disappointing computers in the 80’s
The Law of Hype The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press. When Ford was successful, the company said very little. Now it throws a lot of press conferences. What do you think when a car dealer says, “We have the best prices in town.”
The Law ofAcceleration Successful programs are not built on fads; they’re built on trends. Ninja Turtles could have been the next Barbie dolls if the market hadn’t been flooded, and if the makers had tried to turn the fad into a trend.
The Law of Resources Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off the ground. Regardless of how good a product is, the only product that sells is the one the consumer is aware of.