Rotating Machines as Energy Storage and Power Management Systems<br />Mike Werst<br />m.werst@cem.utexas.edu<br />February...
Topics<br />About UT-Center for Electromechanics<br />Flywheels as energy storage<br />Kinetic energy storage<br />Compari...
Areas of Technology<br />VG  12983a<br />Biotech<br />Electric Power<br />• Electromechanical cell<br />  manipulation<br ...
Flywheel Energy Storage<br />Wikipedia definition:  “A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inerti...
Kinetic Energy<br />Specific Strength of Selected Materials<br />*Burr, “Mechanical Analysis and Design, 1981<br />Flywhee...
Flywheel Highlights<br />VG 12973e<br />Backup Bearings<br />• Conducted flywheel tests, including<br />– Flywheel only te...
Flywheel Challenges<br />Losses<br />Vacuum air gap significantly reduces windage losses at the price of vacuum pump auxil...
VG 12973a<br />Kinetic Energy Storage<br />Application dictates flywheel topology that meets energy and power requirements...
Flywheel Spin Tests<br />VG 12973f<br />• Flywheel tests to-date:<br />– Numerous burst tests (modified design for contain...
Technical Successes - Flywheel <br />VG 12973g<br />• Record tip speed for composite flywheel/arbor assembly (1.34 km/s)<b...
CEM Flywheel Comparison<br />Designed<br />Designed<br />Built & tested<br />Built & tested<br />
Flywheel Energy Storage System for the International Space Station (FESS)<br />• Operations advantages<br />– Higher round...
Advanced Locomotive Propulsion (ALPS) Program Flywheel<br />VG 12973h<br />• electrical load leveling for hybrid electric ...
Backup Bearings<br />Radial Bearing<br />Stator Winding<br />Permanent Magnet Rotor<br />Composite Flywheel<br />Materials...
CEM Flywheel Energy Storage Systems for Military Applications<br />VG 11536.ppt<br />S 4101.0607<br />Composite Rotor Puls...
Homopolar Generator (HPG) Flywheels<br />Faraday disks<br />1/10s to 10s of second discharge rates<br />Very high current/...
Flywheel vs. Electrochemical Energy Storage <br />13<br />12<br />11<br />2<br />5<br />10<br />1<br />7<br />3<br />6<br ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Rotating machines as an alternative method of energy storage and power management mike werst - feb 2010

1,586
-1

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,586
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
73
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rotating machines as an alternative method of energy storage and power management mike werst - feb 2010

  1. 1. Rotating Machines as Energy Storage and Power Management Systems<br />Mike Werst<br />m.werst@cem.utexas.edu<br />February 10, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Topics<br />About UT-Center for Electromechanics<br />Flywheels as energy storage<br />Kinetic energy storage<br />Comparison to other forms of energy storage<br />Peak power vs. peak energy<br />Flywheel topologies<br />Flywheel Energy Storage Examples<br />
  3. 3. Areas of Technology<br />VG 12983a<br />Biotech<br />Electric Power<br />• Electromechanical cell<br /> manipulation<br />• Advanced Generators<br />• Electric Grid Control<br />• Energy Storage<br />• Distributed Generation<br /> Technology<br />Defense<br />• Missile and Aircraft Launcher<br />• All Electric Ship<br />• Advanced Wheeled and<br /> Tracked Vehicles<br />• Electromagnetic Guns<br />• Electromagnetic Armor<br />Space<br />• Space Power<br />• Electromagnetic Launch<br />• Satellite Attitude Control<br />Transportation<br />• Advanced Trains<br />• Hybrid Vehicles<br />• Active Suspension for Vehicles<br />• Wheel Motors<br />• Intelligent Highways<br />Oil & Gas<br />• Exploration<br />• Transmission<br />
  4. 4. Flywheel Energy Storage<br />Wikipedia definition: “A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage device for rotational energy.”<br />*Holm et. al., “A Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies as Energy Buffer in Renewable Energy Sources with respect to Power Capability.”<br />Flywheels have a much broader range of usage than given credit for. <br />
  5. 5. Kinetic Energy<br />Specific Strength of Selected Materials<br />*Burr, “Mechanical Analysis and Design, 1981<br />Flywheel energy storage efficiency is dependent on material and mass distribution<br />
  6. 6. Flywheel Highlights<br />VG 12973e<br />Backup Bearings<br />• Conducted flywheel tests, including<br />– Flywheel only tests to identify failure modes and structural margins<br />– Flywheel burst tests to test candidate containment designs<br />• Demonstrated life of more than 110,000 cycles with a 50% DOD<br />Magnetic<br />Bearings<br />Motor Generator<br />Gimbal Shaft<br />Composite Flywheel<br />Containment System<br />
  7. 7. Flywheel Challenges<br />Losses<br />Vacuum air gap significantly reduces windage losses at the price of vacuum pump auxiliary<br />Bearings<br />Roller bearing require lubrication<br />Magnetic bearings expensive and require touch-down bearings<br />Superconducting bearings need development<br />Carbon fiber material and manufacturing cost<br />Demand for high modulus/high strength carbon fiber<br />Industrial participation/competitiveness will bring mfg cost down<br />Flywheel safety<br />Design margin<br />Flywheel health monitors/fault protection<br />Containment<br />
  8. 8. VG 12973a<br />Kinetic Energy Storage<br />Application dictates flywheel topology that meets energy and power requirements<br />Partially-Integrated Topology<br />Non-Integrated Topology<br />Fully-Integrated Topology<br />
  9. 9. Flywheel Spin Tests<br />VG 12973f<br />• Flywheel tests to-date:<br />– Numerous burst tests (modified design for containment proof tests)<br />– Loss of vacuum test<br />– Over-speed “As Built” Test<br />- Preload loss<br />- 1120 m/s<br />- Benign and recoverable<br />– Coupon/Fatigue tests<br />Multi-ring preloaded flywheel<br />Hydroburst test coupon<br />High temperature & <br />pressure autoclave<br />4-axis filament winder<br />
  10. 10. Technical Successes - Flywheel <br />VG 12973g<br />• Record tip speed for composite flywheel/arbor assembly (1.34 km/s)<br />• Key features<br />– Composite structural arbor <br /> design<br />– Detailed material andmanufacturing process QA<br />
  11. 11. CEM Flywheel Comparison<br />Designed<br />Designed<br />Built & tested<br />Built & tested<br />
  12. 12. Flywheel Energy Storage System for the International Space Station (FESS)<br />• Operations advantages<br />– Higher round trip efficiency<br />– Known state-of-charge<br />– Offer more flexibility in charge/discharge profiles<br />– Doubled contingency power (energy)<br />• Significant life cycle cost savings<br />– Reduced logistics (up-mass & down-mass)<br />– Reduced maintenance (EVA- IVA Hr/Yr)<br /> FW Battery<br /> (+ Electronics) (+ Electronics)<br />Nominal Power 4.1 kW 4.1 kW <br />Peak Power 6.6 kW 6.6 kW<br />Energy Delivered 5.6 kW-hr 4.6 kW-hr<br />Contingency Power 2 orbits 1 orbit<br />Life Expectancy >15 years 5-6 years<br />
  13. 13. Advanced Locomotive Propulsion (ALPS) Program Flywheel<br />VG 12973h<br />• electrical load leveling for hybrid electric locomotive <br />• flywheel stores 480 MJ<br />• @ 15,000 rpm<br />• 2 MW motor/generator<br /> – ~3 min discharge<br />• Testing with high input and output power<br />
  14. 14. Backup Bearings<br />Radial Bearing<br />Stator Winding<br />Permanent Magnet Rotor<br />Composite Flywheel<br />Materials<br />Aluminum<br />Ceramic<br />Permanent Magnet<br />Windings<br />Titanium<br />Inconel<br />Composite<br />Stainless Steel<br />Steel<br />Combo Bearing<br />Transit Bus Flywheel<br />Energy Storage:<br />Power:<br />2 kWhr stored, 1 kWhr delivered<br />150 kW peak, 110 kW cont.,<br />Between 30,000 and 40,000 RPM<br />Composite tip speed:<br />Application:<br />930 m/s at 40,000 rpm<br />Power averaging for 15 ton<br />Hybrid Electric Bus<br />
  15. 15. CEM Flywheel Energy Storage Systems for Military Applications<br />VG 11536.ppt<br />S 4101.0607<br />Composite Rotor Pulse Alternator<br />664 MW, 2.5 kW-h<br />(1991)<br />Iron Core Pulse Alternator<br />800 MW, 10.5 kW-h<br />(1987)<br />Composite Rotor Pulse Alternator<br />2.4 GW, 11 kW-h<br />(1995)<br /> ?<br />S 3010.1993<br />S 3910.1748<br />Composite Rotor & Stator Pulse Alternator<br />3 GW, 6.4 kW-h<br />(1997)<br />Current EM Gun Power Supply<br />Research is Ongoing at CEM<br />(2009)<br />Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch <br />System (EMALS) Energy Storage System<br />(2006)<br />
  16. 16. Homopolar Generator (HPG) Flywheels<br />Faraday disks<br />1/10s to 10s of second discharge rates<br />Very high current/low voltage machines<br />CEM HPGs used for variety of applications<br />Large x-section resistive welding—12” sch. 60 pipe welds<br />Railguns—90mm, 9MJ muzzle energy <br />High-field, single-turn magnets—9MA, 20T toroidal magnet <br />All Iron Rotating (AIR) HPG<br />6.2 MJ, 50 V, 750 kA<br />60 MJ HPG Set—6 ea, 100V, 1.5MA/gen<br />
  17. 17. Flywheel vs. Electrochemical Energy Storage <br />13<br />12<br />11<br />2<br />5<br />10<br />1<br />7<br />3<br />6<br />9<br />4<br />8<br />100,000<br />1,000,000<br />
  18. 18. Summary<br />Advanced carbon materials and manufacturing methods enable<br />Energy densities comparable to chemical storage devices<br />Extremely high power densities for pulsed power applications<br />Flywheels capable of wide range of energy storage applications: .01s to 1800s<br />Many challenges have been overcome: additional R&D could improve energy storage capacity, efficiency and usage<br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×