Circuit models can generate “experience base”<br />Insulation Design Steps<br />Supporting Technology<br />Knowledge of insulation medium<br />Material evaluation<br />Statistical analysis<br />High voltage testing<br />Discharge phenomena research<br />Measurement (aging, space charge,<br /> dielectric, partial discharge, etc.)<br />Knowledge of an insulation component<br />Evaluation of a way to give a design criterion<br />Design<br />Stress<br />Database of ;<br />Insulation medium evaluation<br /> parameters<br />Results of insulation component<br /> model and mock up model tests<br />E50 (Area, thickness, volume effect)<br />=<br />x<br />(1 - ns)<br /> Deterioration factor<br /> Temperature factor<br />Experiences and past records<br /> Safety factor<br /> Evaluation of influential factors<br />on insulation performance<br />Insulation coordination<br />Electromagnetic field computation<br />Electromagnetic transient analysis<br />Evaluation of voltages applied to apparatus<br />Insulation example<br />
Transients are critical<br /><ul><li> Capacitors fail due to time at operating voltage
Other insulation fails under transient conditions
Lower inductance, higher capacitance, tighter connection to generators</li></li></ul><li>Simulation of switching surges in ac ship systems<br />In ac systems, transients can be large. Likely smaller in MVDC, but power electronics have low tolerance for voltage spikes.<br />
Test grid needed to validate modeling for future ships<br /><ul><li> Response to transients
Power electronics</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />Physics-based modeling of breakdown through air and across surfaces can provide necessary parameters for circuit simulations<br />Circuit simulations are critical to identify the sources, size, and occurrence frequency of transients in future ship power systems<br />Validations of simulations can be performed on model systems of sufficient complexity<br />The knowledge of the distribution of transients leads to<br />Minimum cost and weight of insulation with predictable reliability<br />Appropriate protection for power electronic devices <br />Much more work is needed<br />
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