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Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumption   ben gully - may 2010
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Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumption ben gully - may 2010



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  • 1. Renewable Technology Analysis to Decrease Large Ship Fuel Consumption
    ASME ES2010-90294
    Benjamin H. Gully, MSME
    Dr. Michael E. Webber, Dr. Carolyn C. Seepersad
    Richard C. Thompson, MSME
    Center for Electromechanics
    Webber Energy Group
    May 19, 2010
  • 2. The Marine Transportation Industry Has a Substantial Environmental Footprint
    90% of world’s freight is transported by ship
    500 MMT of fuel consumed annually
    30-100 times the sulfur content of land-use diesel
    Other pollutants such as NOx and PM
    645 MMT of CO2 emitted annually
    10% savings in fuel represents ~$400,000 annually
  • 3. Interest In Reducing Energy Consumption Has Spurred Many Conceptual Designs
    E/S Orcelle
    Nippon Yusen KK (NYK)
    Super Eco Ship
    SolarSailor, Soliloquy
  • 4. Designs Have Many Concepts in Common
    Concepts all focus on Zero Emissions (Zemship)
    Radical designs call for hydrogen fuel cells
    Utilize Wind and Solar
    Controllable rigid wing sails
    Photovoltaic panels
    Rigid wing sails with photovoltaic panels
    Wind and solar decrease power demand, hydrogen replaces ‘fossil dependency’ or alleviates emissions
  • 5. Existing Efforts Focus on Redesign of Entire Ship and Technology Development
    Purpose here is to develop simulation to compare conservation potential of technologies
    Calculate energy savings
    Can also be considered a retrofit potential analysis
    Large (~100m) passenger ship application
  • 6. Presentation Outline
    Rigid wing sail system definition
    Solar power system definition
    Simulation results of integration
    Energy storage system potential
  • 7. Sail Propulsion System
  • 8. Sails Operate By Producing Aerodynamic Lift and Drag
    Forward propulsion coefficient, Cx, function of lift and drag (CL, CD)
    Sail position, α, adjusted to maximize Cx
    Function of wind angle
    Leeway produced by CY
    Assume negligible due to ship size, hull design
    Proposed fin designs can provide function of keel
  • 9. Rigid Wing Sail Design Selection
    Comparison analysis performed by Fiorentino [1985]
  • 10. Best Performing Aerofoil Design is NACA 0018
    NACA 0018 produces max lift
    Symmetric profile
    Good allowance for internal mast support
    Flap increases lift 18-24%
    [Fiorentino, 1985]
  • 11. Forward Propulsion Data Resolved As Function of Wind Angle
    [Smulders, 1985]
  • 12. Forward Propulsion Data Resolved As Function of Wind Angle
    ηprop = 0.68
    ηmotor = 0.9
    ηPEconv= 0.9
    [Smulders, 1985]
  • 13. PV Solar Power System
  • 14. DOE Technology Comparison Suggests Wafer Silicon Panel – Assumed 18% Efficiency
  • 15. Solar Panel Efficiency is Also a Function of Incidence Angle
    Efficiency is 100% when incidence is perpendicular
    Phorizontal = Pirr(cosθ)
    Pvertical = Pirr(1-cosθ)
    θ is a function of time of day, 90° at noon
    Negative regions truncated to zero
    Assumed power electronics efficiency of 95%
  • 16. Simulation
  • 17. Load Cycle Data Taken From a Notional Yacht Configuration
  • 18. Area Available for Renewable Energy Systems Was Liberally Estimated
    Rigid Wing Sails
    2 ˣ 500 m2
    PV Solar Panels
    1070 m2horizontal surface
    540 m2vertical surface
    800 m2on sails
    80% of sail area, limited to one side at a time
  • 19. Simulation Parameter Definition: Ship Power System and Wind/Solar Profile
    Original ship power system consists of 4 gensets
    Gensets are cycled on and off to meet power demand
    4 Caterpillar 3516B units
    2 ˣ 1180 kW
    2 ˣ 1600 kW
    Environmental conditions taken from 2008 buoy data
    Wind speed and direction 150 NM from coast of Cape Hatteras, NC
    Solar irradiance similarly located off Cape May, NJ
  • 20. Simulation Shows Significant Fuel Savings of 18%
    Base consumption without wind/solar: 5195 m3/yr
    Fuel Consumption with wind/solar: 4262 m3/yr
    18% reduction
    Integrating power generation of each source shows small contribution of solar energy
  • 21. Solar Power Suffers Greatly From Intermittency
  • 22. Studying Cx Behavior Shows Opportunity for Increased Performance
  • 23. Utilized Wind Power is Limited To Propulsion
  • 24. Hybrid Energy Storage System Benefit is Minimal
    Fuel consumption reduced to 4176 m2/yr – 2% savings
    [Gully 2009]
  • 25. Load Leveling Function of Energy Storage System Has Potential Emissions Benefit
    NOx Emissions from a conventional V8 diesel versus one with a hybrid powertrain [Filipi 2006]
  • 26. Results and Future Work
    Solar power is only able to produce minimal benefit relative to the large power demands of ocean-going vessels
    Wind power produces significant savings
    Investigate alternative sail technologies
    Potential for additional benefit of route selection
    Energy storage as a hybrid device produces minimal increase in efficiency
    May have benefit for emissions reduction
  • 27. Thank You
  • 28. References
    Department of Energy, “Multi-Year Program Plan 2008-2012,” Solar Energy Technologies Program, April 15 2008.
    Filipi, Z., “Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions – HMMWV Case Study” 01-0443, SAE 2006.
    Fiorentino, L., et al. “Proposal of a Sail System or the Propulsion of a 25,000 DWT Bulk-Carrier,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windship Technology, Southhampton, U.K., April 24-25, 1985.
    Gully, B., Webber, M., Seepersad, C., and Thompson, R., “Energy Storage Analysis to Increase Large Ship Fuel Efficiency,” Proceedings of the ASME 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, San Francisco, CA, 2009.
    Smulders, F., “Exposition of Calculation Methods to Analyse Wind-Propulsion on Cargo Ships” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windship Technology, Southhampton, U.K., April 24-25, 1985.
  • 29. Supplemental Slides
  • 30. Reducing Genset Resolution Produces Same Relative Benefit of ESS
  • 31. Additional Simulation Parameters of Note
    Ship direction selected arbitrarily as 10° East of North
    Average solar power produced was equivalent to 15.7kW
  • 32. Fiorentino Fin Design as Keel Alternative