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Fuel cell vehicle projects in texas richard thompson - oct 2010

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  • 1. Fuel Cell Vehicle Projects in Texas October 21, 2010Presented by Richard ThompsonUT – Center for Electromechanics
  • 2. Presentation Topics• Hydrogen Fuel Cell 22’ Shuttle Bus – Vehicle Computer Modeling and Performance Evaluation• Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure in Austin, TX• DOD Hydrogen Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles• Upcoming program - Hydrogen Fuel Cell 35’ Transit Bus Demostration in Austin, TX
  • 3. PEM Fuel Cell Plug-In Hybrid Bus SpecificationsVehicle Fuel Cell Shuttle BusBus Manufacturer EbusYear Model 2007Hybrid Type Series - Charge depletingLength/Width/ 6.7m / 2.3 m / 2.8 mHeightGround Clearance 20 cmWheel Base 3.7 mGVWR 8845 kgPassengers 22 seatedPower Plant andManufacturer 19.1 kW PEM Fuel Cell / Ballard Ni-Cad BatteriesFuel 12 kg - 350 Bar HydrogenFuel Storage 2X 5000 psi Roof Mounted Tanks Saft / STM5-100MREEnergy Storage NiCD Batteries - 60 kWhPropulsion Induction Motor / Reliance ElectricMotor/ManufacturerNominal/Peak 75 kW / 130 kW for 1 minpowerNominal/Peak 400 Nm / 700 Nm for 1 mintorque Ballard 19 kW Fuel Cell StackTransmission Chain Drive/rear differential Overnight Battery Charger – automaticallyRegenerativeBraking yes controlled by vehicle computer
  • 4. Completed a Nine Month Test Program• Ebus 22’ Shuttle Bus – Two hydrogen tanks – 60 kWh NiCD Batteries – 19.1 kW Ballard Fuel Cell Stack – 40 mile range on batteries alone – 180 to 200 mile range with fuel cell and batteries – Has regenerative braking for improved fuel economy• Test Program – Monitored vehicle performance, for example – hydrogen consumption and fuel cell power output – battery’s charge/discharge energy – Monitored maintenance issues
  • 5. Vehicle Evaluation funded by USDOT• Bus operated over 3 different routes in Austin, TX – PRC Campus Route: • Flat, Low speed (<25 mph) – Great Hills Route: • Very hilly (10%+ grades), medium speed (25 – 35 mph) – Jollyville Parmer Route: • Moderate grades, high speed (35 – 45 mph)• Covered 8000 miles over nine months
  • 6. How Efficient are Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles?• Fuel cells are > 50% efficient, compared to < 40% for diesel Gasoline engines can also be converted to run engines on Hydrogen• We averaged about 22 mpg (diesel equivalent energy) • Cost less than FCs• With batteries only we got over 35 mpg, but limited range • 38% - 40% efficiency • Very low emissions • HICE vehicles/engines are available, but limited
  • 7. Recorded Evaluation Data• Daily Manual Logs • Traction Battery Recharging Manual – Mileage Log – Ambient temperature – Voltage and SOC (before and after) – Hydrogen pressure and temperature – Duration of charge – Traction battery voltage and SOC – Amp-hours into each battery – Auxiliary battery voltage – Driver efficiency • Hydrogen Refueling Manual Log – Vehicle faults and maintenance items – Bus tank pressure and temperature (before and after) – Pressure of temperature of each tube (before and after) – Amount of hydrogen used to refuel is then calculated • Data acquisition monitors • Critical performance criteria of the 164 parameters onboard Ebus are computed and logged into the bus categorized as: a daily demo and analysis – Traction System spreadsheet. These criteria – Item (On/Off) include: – Temperatures – Mileage – Trip Information – Battery energy usage (including recharging events) – Auxiliary 12 V Battery – Traction motor propulsion and regenerative energy – Hybrid System – Hydrogen consumption – Overnight Charger – Fuel cell energy output – Accumulated amp-hours – Fuel cell run time – Charge Information – Fuel cell, traction motor, and battery efficiencies – Charge States and Codes – Overall vehicle fuel economy (kWh/km)
  • 8. Vehicle Modeling using PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit)• All electric vehicle – Deep cycle lead-acid batteries – Advanced state of the art batteries• Fuel cell vehicle• Fuel cell hybrid vehicle – Plug-in fuel cell – Fuel cell dominant hybrid
  • 9. Modeling goal was to be able to predict vehicle performance for any given route• Matched vehicle’s net energy consumption within 5%• Approach helps others make better choices on emerging vehicle Slope change with hydrogen consumption technologies due to fuel cell operation• Avoids the “build and test” approach
  • 10. Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure in Austin, TX• Skid-mounted hydrogen fueling station for vehicles• Generates hydrogen from natural gas• Integrated system includes – fuel processor, which converts natural gas to hydrogen gas, – pressure swing absorption unit, which purifies the hydrogen – hydrogen compressor – storage tanks – hydrogen dispensing system H2-rich gas High Pressure • First permanent fueling station in Storage Texas – Public outreach and education Pressure • Provides excellent learning Water Reformer Shift Swing Absorption Pure H2 platform Reactor Utility Water • Provides High-purity H2 for Compressor additional vehicles (50 kg/day) Methane Dispenser Pure H2 Integrated Hydrogen Supply System
  • 11. DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program• DOD requested extended range capability on a single tank of hydrogen gas• Surpass the range of vehicles with – current lead-acid batteries – advanced state-of-the art batteries• Vehicle platform for the hydrogen propulsion retrofit is the all- • Vehicle takes advantage of electric, Columbia ParCar SUV-LN readily available, commercial – 3.7 kg of hydrogen in a 5 ksi (350 bar) components composite tank – 8.5 kW fuel cell – Ultracapacitors for improved acceleration and vehicle efficiency, regenerative braking
  • 12. Utility Vehicle Layout with H2 Storage Hydrogen Storage 3.73 Kg Boost Converter (to 48Vdc Motor)Fuel Cell Module Controller/Data Ultracapacitor 8kW Acquisition Modules20-40Vdc NI Compact Rio 4X 16V 500F
  • 13. DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program Motor Power (continuous/peak) 6.7 kW/12.9 kW Motor Current (continuous/peak) 150 Amps/500 Amps Drive Ratio 10.35 Fuel Cell Power 8.5 kW Fuel 3.7 kg H2 @ 350 Bar Energy Storage System 4 x 16V 500F Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Voltage Range 58V - 42V Delivered Energy from UC ESS 27.8 Whr All-Electric • Extended range testing was completed (40 mile range) To • 309 miles on one fueling of H2 Hydrogen Fuel Cell • Average fuel economy of 90 mpg –(> 300 mile range) gasoline equivalent (same as mi/kg-hydrogen) Date Trip Distance AVG Economy AVG Fuel Cell Efficiency [mi] [mi/kg] [%] 10/07/10 1 15.10 79.16 41.20% 10/08/10 2 14.70 79.60 41.70% 10/08/10 3 12.04 79.16 42.53% 10/08/10 4 15.59 81.67 41.40% 10/11/10 5 45.14 88.15 42.23% 10/11/10 6 52.90 95.35 40.86% 10/12/10 7 42.44 94.95 42.54% 10/12/10 8 30.83 94.25 41.37% 10/13/10 9 41.70 91.93 42.66% 10/13/10 10 38.96 87.81 41.58%
  • 14. Proterra Bus to Begin Passenger Service in Austin/Cap Metro - Early 2011 (Currently in Columbia, SC) 35’ Transit Bus Fuel Cell / Plug-in Battery Hybrid Bus Ground-up Design Regenerative Braking 37 Passengers Up to 10 mpg diesel energy equivalent
  • 15. Proterra Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Bus
  • 16. Sponsors and Supporting Partners• US Department of Energy• US Department of Transportation• Texas H2 Coalition• Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC)• Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE)• Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ)• Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO)• Gas Technology Institute• The University of Texas at Austin• Columbia Parcar• Hydrogenics