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Energy storage for smart grid and renewables v1

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  • 1. Energy Storage for Renewables and MicroGrids
    John Pappas
    Center for Electromechanics
    The University of Texas at Austin
  • 2. Center Experience
    Reconfiguration via optimization
    100+ researchers into energy storage, smart grid, and energy technology
    Working for seven years on “Smart Grid” for DoD
    Storage programs in flywheels, batteries, ultracaps, compressed air, and thermal
    Using a power objective function
    Subject to:
    Reconfiguration approach handles:
    • Fuel minimization
    • 3. Power system protection
    • 4. Damage mitigation
  • Long history in storage and load leveling systems
    Transit Bus
    Flywheel Battery
    2 kWhr, 150 kW
    30,000 rpm
    Locomotive Load Leveling
    • 140kWhr, 2.5 MW
    • 5. 15,000 rpm
    Examples of demonstrated systems
  • 6. Utility Storage Flywheel
    Pendulum-mounted steel and reinforced flywheel
    Very large l/d
    Sited in ground
    No additional containment
    Vacuum barrier
    Surface mounted Motor/generator, bearings, gimbal
    Life cycle cost lower than batteries
    Initial cost competitive with batteries
  • 7. Why CEM’s Focus on Utility Storage?
    Storage is widely recognized as critical in future power systems
    Storage enhances insertion of renewables
    Storage defers need for new transmission lines
    Storage is needed for stability
    Storage opens new opportunities for grid optimization
  • 8. Today’s Technology
    In today’s grid
    Batteries
    CAES
    Flywheels
    Pumped hydro
    Thermal storage
    All work
    So, impediment is not solely lack of technology
  • 9. Critical Questions
    Where to add storage to grid?
    Sources
    Does little for peak congestion
    Nodes
    Likely requires largest scale
    Loads
    Argument for PHEV’s
    May be better argument for stationary systems
    What are the real costs, who pays, who benefits?
    “Which is best technology?” is not a critical question
  • 10. Technology Comparisons
    Given differing maturities, direct technology comparison misleading
    Level playing field by comparing energy lost
    Energy lost = Energy lost putting it into storage*
    plus
    Energy lost while in storage
    plus
    Energy lost retrieving from storage*
    * Includes opportunity loss if there is a mismatch with the power demand
  • 11. Basic Efficiency - Data Summary
    CAES Tank
    Battery (Lead Acid)
    Battery (NiCad)
    Battery
    (Li lon)
    Super Capacitor
    Composite Flywheel
    Steel Flywheel
    0.55
    0.85
    0.58
    0.90
    0.80
    0.90
    0.90
    Turn around efficiency
    Charge time (hr)
    Self-discharge time (day)
    Operating Power (MW)
    Capital cost of stored
    Energy ($/Whr)
    Total stored energy
    Available (MWhr)
    Initial Cost of power ($/W)
    O&M , Installation, Space
    Total initial cost ($)
    Total initial cost ($/W)
    4.0
    4.0
    4.0
    4.0
    4.0
    4.0
    4.0
    2000
    2000
    33
    2000
    33
    1
    0.55
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    0.17
    0.2
    0.46
    1.33
    0.5
    1.0
    0.4
    4
    4
    4
    4
    4
    4
    4
    0.70
    0.225
    0.225
    0.78
    0.40
    0.28
    0.28
    1,380,000
    1,025,000
    2,065,000
    6,100,000
    2,400,000
    4,280,000
    1,800,000
    1.38
    1.03
    2.07
    6.10
    2.40
    4.28
    1.80
    Too much uncertainty to predict ultimate best choice
  • 12. Initial Cost of Delivered Energy
    4.00
    CAES
    Lead acid
    NiCad
    Li lon
    Super Cap
    Comp FW
    Steel FW
    3.00
    2.00
    Cost per Watt-hr ($/Whr)
    1.00
    0.50
    0.00
    10
    9
    8
    7
    6
    5
    4
    3
    2
    1
    0
    Hours Stored
    R&D moving flywheel cross-over to 10+ hours
  • 13. Smart Grid
    Attributes
    Permit active participation by consumers
    Accommodate generation and storage options
    Enable new products, services, and markets
    Provide power quality
    Operate efficiently
    Reconfigure in response to system disturbances
    Technology
    Traditional power engineering
    Computing
    Telecommunications
  • 14. Smart Grid is Growing in Two Directions
    Top down
    Large scale wind farms
    Smart meters
    Bottom up
    Microgrids
    Neighborhoods
    Industry
    Universities
    DoD facilities
    Urban environments
  • 15. Microgrid Considerations
    Understanding source efficiency vs. power demand helps assess storage applicability
    Gas Turbine Performance
    0.7
    0.6
    (P1,x1)
    0.5
    Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/KWHr) x
    0.4
    0.3
    (P2,x2)
    0.2
    0
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    35
    40
    45
    50
    Power (MW)
  • 16. Load Leveling Via Storage in Microgrid
    Load Leveling
    Analytical study comparing external storage vs. using microgrid as storage to achieve load leveling
    0.3
    0.2
    Storage becomes
    economical
    Store Efficiency Function
    0.1
    Fuel consumption Function
    0.0
    0
    10
    20
    30
    40
    50
    60
    70
    Duty Cycle About the Mean Operating Point
  • 17. Benefits From Point Design Analyses
    Analyses of specific technologies in a point application is the best way to make comparisons
    Choice among storage technologies and no explicit storage depends on temporal variations within a microgrid
    Operating economics can be properly compared to other technological imperatives
    Storage system response times
    Effect on operating cost of systems other than storage
    Cost of space used for storage and other systems
    Technology choices are driven by very specific needs
  • 18. Summary
    Storage critical for “Smart Grid”
    Most agree, but assume different applications
    Excellent storage choices exist today
    With R&D, better choices will exist in the future
    Evolution of “Smart Grid” is a work in progress
    Storage can help shape the evolution