Hydrogen Fuel Cell VehiclesResearch and Development Michael Lewis April 27, 2011
Why Hydrogen and Fuel Cells? Ultimate Goal is to reduce emissions and dependence on foreign oil Hydrogen is abundant and can be produced from a variety of feedstock Natural Gas Reformation Biomass Gasification Renewable Electrolysis Hydrogen is a carbon free fuel Hydrogen Fuel Cells are more efficient than traditional technologies and have zero emissions
Current Challenges If it was easy… Hydrogen production, distribution, and storage Reduce cost on all fronts CO2 sequestering Zero emissions Innovative materials based storage is promising Fuel Cell cost and durability Advances in membrane and component technology are ongoing and leading to decreased cost and increased reliability Current political environment is less favorable than in the past
CEM’s Role Address Challenges through Technology Demonstration and Implementation Increase Commercialization through Technology Transfer to Industrial partners Balance of Performance versus Cost Provide Education to Manufacturers and Public Disclaimer: This is not a fuel cell vehicle.
Early Hydrogen Fuel Cell Work Plug-In Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration and evaluation (2007-2008) Excellent learning platform that has provided knowledge and experience for current and future programs Installed first permanent Hydrogen Fueling Station in Texas Unique capability to produce and deliver compressed hydrogen for current and future hydrogen vehicle programs
Current and Ongoing Work Extended Range Hydrogen Utility Vehicle Goal: To significantly increase range without reducing vehicle performance Hydrogen fuel cell retrofit of existing battery powered utility vehicle Two vehicles in 8 months Sponsored by Defense Logistics Agency and NAVSEA-CRANE Currently performing successfully halfway through 12 month demonstration at Warner Robins AFB Project Partners: Success in this program has led to other DLA opportunities.
Current and Ongoing Work Austin Demonstration of Plug-In Hybrid Fuel Cell Transit Bus 12-month revenue service under Capital Metro Goal: Reduce NOx and further commercial acceptance of hydrogen bus and fueling infrastructure Proterra Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid bus Fuel cell “plug-in” hybrid using advanced Li-ion batteries Increases fuel economy by 2-3X over conventional diesel buses To be fueled using UT-CEM hydrogen station Program onset will included station upgrades to reformer and storage capacity Funding provided by TCEQ and FTA (through CTE) UT-CEM is the prime under TCEQ funding Program management, as well as bus and station evaluation Project Partners: GTI, CTE, Capital Metro, Proterra
Upcoming and Future Projects Hydrogen Powered Terminal Tractors Goal: Identify onboard hydrogen storage and power system designs to increase performance of current state-of-art terminal tractors Sponsored by Defense Logistics Agency Phase I Design: Capacity of Texas PHETT is baseline vehicle for retrofit Plug-In Hybrid Electric Terminal Tractors using lead-acid batteries and a diesel gen-set Dual parallel Fuel Cell modules with 700 bar gaseous hydrogen storage Adds reliability and redundancy to power system Provides opportunity for increased hydrogen storage while still maintaining compatibility with more common 350 bar infrastructure Phase II Proposal submitted March 2011 Leveraged success of Hydrogen Utility Vehicle Program for similar retrofit of a commercial terminal tractor with DLA.
Upcoming and Future Projects Electric Transit Bus with On-route Charging Goal: Demonstrate transit technologies that reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions FTA sponsored TIGGER award Transit Investment for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Partners: CTE, Proterra, Star Metro (Tallahassee, FL), VIA (San Antonio, TX) Star Metro – Conductive on-route charging with optional fuel cell package VIA – Inductive on-route charging CEM’s role: data collection and evaluation, technical program management Opportunity to collect data / knowledge on advanced batteries for future projects and other applications
All-electric derivative of the Proterra fuel cell transit bus
70 kWh of Li-ion batteries
Rapid charge in about 8 minutes (or less), 60% to 70% SOC swing
Gives about 20 mile range
Requires on-route charging infrastructure
Commercialization / Education Hydrogen Utility Vehicles and Terminal Tractors Goal: Develop hydrogen fuel cell utility vehicle (or terminal tractor) that balances cost and performance for commercial applications Potential market exists at sites currently using fuel cell lift trucks Hydrogen refueling structure is already in place Over 1500 lift trucks in operation at more than 40 sites throughout U.S. DLA vehicles were subject to demanding requirements (range, gradeability, duty cycle) Commercial Utility Vehicle Design Approach Keep cost down by using vehicle’s stock lead-acid batteries with 1-2 kW fuel cell and 0.5-1.0 kg of H2 Hydrogen Fuel Cell upgrade cost: $8,000 to $12,000 (current vehicle cost ~$10,000) Commercial Terminal Tractor Design Approach Keep cost down by using single fuel cell power module and Balancing performance and customer needs CEM will present Commercial Utility Vehicle potential to Columbia ParCar in upcoming months Capacity of Texas plans to contract CEM for technical assistance through their TCEQ funding for development of a Zero Emissions Terminal Tractor (ZETT) Modeling tools and experience Education and Technology Transfer
Questions? Michael Lewis UT - Center for Electromechanics PRC Mail Code #R7000 Austin, TX 78712 Phone: (512) 232-5715 email@example.com