Tone • Tone refers to black and white and the grey scale. The gray scale contains no colour. It is a series of tonal steps from black to white. • Varia?ons in light or tone are the means by which we op?cally dis?nguish the complicated visual informa?on in the environment. In other words, we see what is dark because it overlaps what is light, and vice versa.
Tone, Greyscale and the Zone System
Tonal Separa?on • Tonal separa?on deals with a viewer’s percep?on of depth due to the brightness of objects. Usually light objects appear closer and darker objects appear farther away. • Two objects of iden?cal size, a viewer will usually see the brighter object as closer and the darker object as farther away.
Colour Separa?on • Colour can be used as a depth cue by classifying them into warm and cool groups. The warm colours are red, orange, and yellow, while the cool colours are blue and green. • Warm colours usually seem closer to the viewer and cool colours appear farther away.
Up/Down Posi?on • The ver?cal loca?on of objects in the frame aﬀects their apparent distance from the viewer. Objects higher in the frame appear farther away, and objects lower in the frame seem closer.
Contrast and Aﬃnity • The greater the contrast in a visual component, the more the visual intensity or dynamic increases. The greater the aﬃnity in a visual component, the more the visual intensity or dynamic decreases.
Aﬃnity of space • A surface division divides the frame in half and both halves are ﬂat space. Although the frame is divided, both halves are spa?ally similar, crea?ng an aﬃnity of space. • Aﬃnity of space represented in these two shots which are both ﬂat.
Contrast of Space
Contrast of Space • The surface division separates the deep and ﬂat halves of the picture.
Four Types of Space • Deep Space • Flat Space • Limited Space • Ambiguous Space
Flat Space • Flat space is not an illusion. Flat space emphasises the two-‐dimensional quality of the screen surface. • The walls are frontal, and there are no longitudinal planes or converging lines. Actors are staged on the same horizontal plane, they are the same size.
Deep Space • Deep space gives the illusion of a three dimensional picture on a two-‐dimensional screen surface. There are several longitudinal planes, one-‐point perspec?ve, shape change, size diﬀerence, colour separa?on, tonal separa?on, up/down posi?on.
Limited Space • Limited Space the depth cues in the shot include size change, up/down posi?on and tonal separa?on. There are no longitudinal planes, only frontal surfaces.
Ambiguous Space • The lights are oﬀ in the hall, some stray light illuminates the stairs, and the two actors are somewhere in the dark. The picture is ambiguous because it’s impossible to tell the actual size and spa?al rela?onship in the shot.