Alternative to What? Image Source: http://www.connectinghistories.org.uk/collections/bishton.asp Start: http://www.duvetbr...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Know  key terms related to alternative & independent media </li></ul><ul><li>Understand  quali...
Introduction <ul><li>Alternative & independent are understood in opposition to a mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>There ...
Models of media <ul><li>Four models of media (Williams, 1962 pp.129-137)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul></...
Definitions
Independence <ul><li>Concerned with  media organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from dominant media org’s </li></ul><u...
Alternativeness <ul><li>A quality of  media texts </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative point of view </li></ul><ul><li>An alte...
How do we define  separateness ?
Separateness <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>How do these ...
How do we define  dominance ?
Dominance <ul><li>Market share: what percentage? </li></ul><ul><li>Control of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-nationa...
How do we define  conventional ?
Convention <ul><li>Rhetoric, genre - paradigms and modes of address </li></ul><ul><li>Unconventional messages </li></ul><u...
Independent =  alternative?
by any other name... <ul><li>Radical media </li></ul><ul><li>Social media </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens’ media </li></ul><ul>...
Ideology <ul><li>Alternative media is “counter-hegemonic” (Atton, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative media is inherently ...
Alternative media texts: a definition <ul><li>Radical content  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural or political </li></ul></ul>...
Alternative media / alternative audiences <ul><li>How do the audience make meaning from alternative texts? </li></ul><ul><...
What communities could be served by alternative media?
Community media <ul><li>Rhetoric of mainstream: “the man in the street” and “the journalist” </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative...
Community media <ul><li>“Alternative media workers see themselves as enablers of communication processes rather than as pr...
Handsworth Self Portrait
Movement Media <ul><li>“Alternatives arise from movements.  They do not create movements”  (Phillips in Coyer et al, 2007)...
 
Dogme 95 <ul><li>1. </li></ul>
Festen (Dogme 95) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEiJF6xtM9g
http://www.duvetbrothers.com/media/warma.html War Machine (Scratch Video)
…and the Internet?
Technology
Economics
Politics
How does technology enable alternativeness?
How do economic factors limit alternativeness?
What policies are needed to encourage alternativeness?
Conclusion <ul><li>Alternative & independent are understood in opposition to a mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>There ar...
Alternative to What? Image Source: http://www.connectinghistories.org.uk/collections/bishton.asp
Further Reading <ul><li>Atton, C.  A Reassement of the Alternative Press in Media Culture & Society vol 21 </li></ul><ul><...
Further Reading <ul><li>Curran & Seaton, (1997) P ower Without Responsibility ,  “Press History” Ch 1 - 7 and Ch 18 “The L...
Further Reading <ul><li>Nigg & Wade, 1981,  Community Media </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, R. (1978)  The Press & Popular Cul...
Further Reading <ul><li>General reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Media & Society Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http...
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MED5008: Stream 2, Week 1: Alternative to What?

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Slides for week 1, stream 2 MED5008 Alternative Media and Web Production (2nd Year, BCU)

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  • In UK paternal &amp; commercial are dominant Democratic is experimental or alternative
  • Filming must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in. If a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found. 2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. Music must not be used unless it occurs within the scene being filmed, i.e., diege tic . 3. The camera must be a hand-held camera. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. The film must not take place where the camera is standing; filming must take place where the action takes place. 4. The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable (if there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera). 5. Optical work and filters are forbidden. 6. The film must not contain superficial action (murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.) 7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden (that is to say that the film takes place here and now). 8. Genre movies are not acce ptable. 9. The final picture must be transferred to the Academy 35mm film , with an aspect ratio of 4:3, that is, not widescreen . Originally, the requirement was th at the fil m had to be filmed on Academy 35mm film, but the rule was relaxed to allow low-budget productions. 10. The director must not be credited
  • MED5008: Stream 2, Week 1: Alternative to What?

    1. 1. Alternative to What? Image Source: http://www.connectinghistories.org.uk/collections/bishton.asp Start: http://www.duvetbrothers.com/media/bluemonday.htm
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Know key terms related to alternative & independent media </li></ul><ul><li>Understand qualities of alternative media texts </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to to consider the position of a media worker in the production of an alternative text </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Alternative & independent are understood in opposition to a mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different ways to explore and relate to alternative & independent media </li></ul><ul><li>These media provide an ideological alternative to mainstream issues and representations </li></ul>
    4. 4. Models of media <ul><li>Four models of media (Williams, 1962 pp.129-137) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Definitions
    6. 6. Independence <ul><li>Concerned with media organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from dominant media org’s </li></ul><ul><li>Relative scale of indies and majors </li></ul>
    7. 7. Alternativeness <ul><li>A quality of media texts </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative point of view </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative rhetoric </li></ul>
    8. 8. How do we define separateness ?
    9. 9. Separateness <ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>How do these definitions change the understanding of a media organisation? </li></ul>
    10. 10. How do we define dominance ?
    11. 11. Dominance <ul><li>Market share: what percentage? </li></ul><ul><li>Control of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-national </li></ul><ul><li>Vertically & horizontally integrated </li></ul><ul><li>How do these definition change the understanding of a media organisation? </li></ul>
    12. 12. How do we define conventional ?
    13. 13. Convention <ul><li>Rhetoric, genre - paradigms and modes of address </li></ul><ul><li>Unconventional messages </li></ul><ul><li>How does this reflect dominant ideologies? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Independent = alternative?
    15. 15. by any other name... <ul><li>Radical media </li></ul><ul><li>Social media </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens’ media </li></ul><ul><li>Activist media </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous media </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic media </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ideology <ul><li>Alternative media is “counter-hegemonic” (Atton, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative media is inherently powerful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The act of independent production is a political act, irrespective of content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A democratic model? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Alternative media texts: a definition <ul><li>Radical content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural or political </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong aesthetic form </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise technology fully </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative production </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>De-professionalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation of cultural processes </li></ul><ul><li>See Chris Atton (2002) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Alternative media / alternative audiences <ul><li>How do the audience make meaning from alternative texts? </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative media and personal identity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption that representations within mainstream media are inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of a shared ideology through media text </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. What communities could be served by alternative media?
    20. 20. Community media <ul><li>Rhetoric of mainstream: “the man in the street” and “the journalist” </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative press: the woman in the street becomes the journalist </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric of alternative: more direct, more opinionated </li></ul><ul><li>Exposes the ideology of “free press” </li></ul><ul><li>See Atton (1999), Traber (1985) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Community media <ul><li>“Alternative media workers see themselves as enablers of communication processes rather than as producers of ready made messages... </li></ul><ul><li>...In practise, however the ideal of total access is difficult to achieve.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigg & Wade, Community Media </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Handsworth Self Portrait
    23. 23. Movement Media <ul><li>“Alternatives arise from movements. They do not create movements” (Phillips in Coyer et al, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives often linked to social and political contexts, e.g: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feminism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punk music fanzines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more holistic positions on social cohesion </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Dogme 95 <ul><li>1. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Festen (Dogme 95) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEiJF6xtM9g
    26. 27. http://www.duvetbrothers.com/media/warma.html War Machine (Scratch Video)
    27. 28. …and the Internet?
    28. 29. Technology
    29. 30. Economics
    30. 31. Politics
    31. 32. How does technology enable alternativeness?
    32. 33. How do economic factors limit alternativeness?
    33. 34. What policies are needed to encourage alternativeness?
    34. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>Alternative & independent are understood in opposition to a mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different ways to explore and relate to alternative & independent media </li></ul><ul><li>These media provide an ideological alternative to mainstream issues and representations </li></ul><ul><li>The web provides an economic & technological opportunity for alternative media </li></ul>
    35. 36. Alternative to What? Image Source: http://www.connectinghistories.org.uk/collections/bishton.asp
    36. 37. Further Reading <ul><li>Atton, C. A Reassement of the Alternative Press in Media Culture & Society vol 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Atton, C. (2002) ‘News cultures and New Social Movements...’ Journalism Studies, 3.4 pp 491-505 </li></ul><ul><li>Coyer, K. Downmut, T. & Fountain, A. (2007) The Alternative Media Handbook. Routledge, London </li></ul>
    37. 38. Further Reading <ul><li>Curran & Seaton, (1997) P ower Without Responsibility , “Press History” Ch 1 - 7 and Ch 18 “The Liberal Theory of Press Freedom - for an analysis of press media history </li></ul>
    38. 39. Further Reading <ul><li>Nigg & Wade, 1981, Community Media </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, R. (1978) The Press & Popular Culture [esp pp 46-50] </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, R. Communications </li></ul>
    39. 40. Further Reading <ul><li>General reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Media & Society Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://onlinejournalismblog.com / </li></ul></ul>

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