COFFEE ROBUSTA IN COTE D’IVOIREVITORIA, June 2012 By Dr KOFFI NGoran
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire INTRODUCTION RESEARCH AND INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION Côte d’Ivoire in West Africa 322 462 Km2 20.8 million inhabitants Economic lung of West Africa : 40 % of GDP
INTRODUCTIONCoffee cultivation was introduced in the localityof Alima (south-Eastern) in 1890 with two plantvarieties known as Indenié and Kouilou. Butthese varieties were destroyed in the 1940s dueto coffee wilt disease (tracheomycosis).Replantation by more disease resistantvarieties of Robusta took place in the 1950sThe distribution of seeds and plant materialswas then carried out by the African FarmersUnion and colonial farmers.
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire Identification of Coffee growing zone Coffee growing zone First Zone
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’IvoirePRODUCTION STATUSAreas covered by coffee between 1930 and1960: In 1934, 30.000 Ha including:- 24.000 ha by European farmers, representing80%- 6.000 ha by African farmers, representing 20% In 1960, 500.000 ha were cultivated, including:- 485.000 ha by African farmers, 97%- 15.000 ha by the Europeans, (3%)
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’IvoirePRODUCTION STATUSWith the strong support of the Governmentfarmers expanded coffee planted areas to 1.2million hectares.400.000 farmers developed their coffee farms ofa small size: 25% of their coffee farms are less than 2 ha, 70% are between 2 and 10 ha, 5% are above 10 ha.
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire Graph 1: Coffee production and exports by Côte dIvoire 7,000 6,000 5,000Thousand 60kg bags 4,000 Production Exportations 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1965/66 1970/71 1975/76 1980/81 1985/86 1990/91 1995/96 2000/01 2005/06 2010/11 Source: ICO
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire•Average production was between 3 and 5million 60-kg bags per crop year from 1960/61 to1999/2000,•Production is essentially exported as greenbeans without processing; Local processing isweak, less than 20%.• Coffee represented more than 40% of thecountry total export revenues in the 1960s andin the 70s,•The downward trend of coffee production inCote d’Ivoire is attributable to a number offactors including:
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’IvoireThe liberalization of the filiere and the reformfrom 1998; Very low levels of international price, less thanUS cents 40/lb from 2000 to 2004 due mainly to anoversupply in international market,Increasing interest of coffee farmers foralternative crops such as cocoa, palm oil, rubber, Ageing coffee trees, Socio-political crisis between 2002 and 2011.
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’IvoireDespite the current downward trend of productionthere are still potentials for maintaining productionat reasonable levels: The national governing body has beenrestructed; creation of Coffee & Cocoa Council in2011, The National Agronomic Research Centre (CNRA) The extension services provider, the NationalAgency for Rural Development support (ANADER),The three main pillars will contribute to revitalizeRobusta coffee sector in the country.
Research and Innovation in Côte d’IvoireSince 1960, technologies have been developed byCNRA. The mission of coffee programme: To breed high yielding coffee varieties, resistant to diseases and pests, with high quality beans, To develop appropriate cultural techniques for planting and upkeepping coffee, To develop integrated management methods for the control of pests and diseases, To provide farmers with improved planting materials, To train extension agents, farmers and other stakeholders on good agricultural practices for sustainable coffee production
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire1. Plant materials: From 1960 to 1984 7 Clones (distributed as cuttings) Earliness (2 years) High yielding 2.5 t/year Bean size: 13 g for 100 beans Caffeine content: 3 % 13 hybrids (distributed as seeds) High yielding 1.6 t/year Bean size: 14 g for 100 beans
Research and Innovation in Côte d’IvoireSince 1984, the hybrid vigour was observed between two genetic pools (Guinean and Congolese) available in an important coffee germplasm collection in Côte d’Ivoire . This vigour was exploited. Guinean pool Guinean Congolese pool Guinea C B SG2 Source: Centrafriqan Rep. Uganda Genetic diversity Cameroon of C. canephora. (Berthaud, 1986 ; Côte d’Ivoire Gabon Montagnon et Congo DRC al, 1992 ; Dussert et al, 1999) SG1 Angola
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire 12 Hybrids (distributed as seeds) Earliness (1 year) High yielding 3-3.5 t/year Bean size: 15 g for 100 beans Caffeine content: 2 % Early and High yielding variety (Source: CNRA)
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire2. Cultural techniquesN fertilizer such as Urea at 100 kg N/ha gave a yield increase of 40% more than the control. To minimize the cost of Urea application, legume trees were intercropped with coffee trees. 9,80 a 10 8,56 b 7,93 b 9 Good effects 8 on coffee yield Production (T cmd/ha) 7 5,60 c 30 % more than 6 the control 5 4 3 2 1 Témoin Gliricidia Albizzia Urée
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire Legume trees contribute to coffee productivity and soil improvement, Legume trees improve quality and nutritional value of the beans by increasing total acidity, proteins, potassium and sugars content.
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire In small size coffee plantations food crops can be associated for intercropping during the first two years after planting. In the framework of diversification coffee can be associated with rubber. Coffee trees intercropped with Ruber trees
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire 3. Sensorial qualityIntroduction of « terroirs » concept in coffeesector in Côte d’Ivoire through a pilot projectfinanced and sponsored by CFC, ICO, IACO andCNRA in 2005.Linking the environment with ROBUSTA beanand liquor qualities is:an answer for quality management, traceability and improvement of coffee farmer’s income.
Research and Innovation in Côte d’IvoireThe “Terroirs” concept consist of identifying pedology , type of soils andclimate of different regions. Cup tasting 4 1 3 5 2 *
Research and Innovation in Côte d’Ivoire Identification of coffee liquor from different geographical areas Intensité odeur 3,000 préference qualité aromatique 2,500 2,000 fermenté corps 1,500 1,000 divo 0,500 brûlé acidité aboisso 0,000 abengourou Man terreux amertume vert astringence apre fruité
Research and Innovation in Côte d’IvoireAlso to diferentiate Terroirs according to the chemical contents of coffeebeans and soils analyses
Presentation of terroirs Terroir 4Results of the Pilot Project • Good aromatic quality • Good taste Lacs Terroir 3 1 • Rioted • Bitter body Terroir 1 • Green and astringent taste • Bitter body Moyen Comoé Terroir 2 • Slighty acid • Good aromatic quality • Fruity taste
Research and Innovation in Côte d’IvoireConcept of terroirs, Coffee tasting, effectivemeans of: Training farmers for good post harvestpractices, Collecting coffee, packaging and labelling byorigin, Directing Robusta coffees to specific nichemarkets.
Technology transfer in Côte d’IvoireTechnology transfer requires the following: Institutional framework: Research, Developmentand organizing farmers, Availability of research output: improved varietyand coffee agronomic practices, Well trained and organized extension servicesproviders and efficient transmission mechanisms, Farmers well organized and trained in goodagricultural practices.
Technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire1. From 1960 to 1994:Extension services were provided by a state owncompany known as SATMACI, in charge oforganizing farmers, the provision of plantmaterials and advices to farmers,Availing technologies to farmers with specificapproach by officers that mastered the varioustopics of extension services,Other services were provided to farmers:agricultural input subsidies, support of localauthorities.
Technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire2. From 1994: Creation of ANADER,Diffusion of technologies through participativeapproach with research and farmers’ organization,Objective = reaching the maximum of producers,Strategy: Associating farmers to the choice of innovation; implicating them in identifying their constraints,
Technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire2. From 1994 (contd): Suggesting solutions to address theseconstraints by the research, or elaboratingtopics on these constraints, Strengthening producers’ building capacitythrough training and visit of contact groups ondemonstration farms, Elaboration of technical itinerary to support thetransference of research results,Results: Farmers capcity is still limited to adoptand implement the good practices.
Technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire3. Farmer Field School :Experience successfully carried out from 2003through the STCP pilot project on cocoa farms:fight against insects anddiseases, rehabilitation, quality improvementand fertilization.This approach has not yet been used in thediffusion of technologies of coffee farming. Participative approach in the search forsolutions to the challenges of farmers,
Technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire The use of Facilitators among farmers trainedto takeover the role of agricultural advisers, Permanent exchange betweenfarmers, evaluation of activities, Progressive development of extensionservices within the farmer’s organizations,This mechanism can give good results incoffee technology transfer to achieve adoptionof recommended practices.
CONCLUSIONAlthough its exports represent less than 2% ofworld exports compared to 5% recorded in the1980s, Robusta coffee continues to be animportant economical and social factor in Côted’Ivoire.Moreover, some capacities already available canrevive the coffee sector: Strong scientific coffee institution for improvingproductivity and quality, increasing value chain ofcoffee from Côte d’Ivoire through terroirs concept
CONCLUSION Extension system for improving andstrengthening the mechanisms of technologytransfer, National coffee development plan including:- facilitating input supply, incentives to farmersand credit services,- the market price,- and strategies for local processing andincreasing domestic consumption.
Innovation and technology transfer in Côte d’Ivoire THANKS to the Authority of Robusta Coffee in Brazil THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION