Monuments of india

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  • Rich heritage, rich culture of India has been reflected in this art – hence this slide as a background.
  • Jaisalmer : lodurva.
  • 41 palaces in rajasthan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_palaces_in_Rajasthan
  •  purdah (the practice of preventing women from being seen by men), had to be given opportunity to witness proceedings in the market centre and watch the royal processions and festivities sitting behind the stone carved screens.having rooms of different coloured marbleswhile fountains adorn the centre of the courtyard”Royal family of Jaipur, during their reign, also used the palace as a hot weather retreat, during the suffocating summer season of Jaipur, for several years, since the unusually designed window screens provided the much needed cool breeze and ventilation.[6]
  • Interior of chandra mahal and sabha mahal(where visitors allowed it’s a museum now)
  • meaning the 'Auspicious Palace', was built with a fusion of the Islamic, Rajput and European architectural styles in the late 19th century by Maharaja Madho Singh II as reception centre.There are two huge sterling silver vessels of 1.6 metres (5.2 ft) height and each with capacity of 4000 litres and weighing 340 kilograms (750 lb), on display here. They were made from 14000 melted silver coins without soldering to carry the water of the Ganges to drink on his trip toEngland in 1901 (for Edward VII's coronation) as he was finicky about committing religious sin by consuming the English water. Hence, the vessels are named as Gangajelies
  • Panoramic view the Udaipur City Palace Complex at night
  • The present owner of the Palace is Maharaj Gaj Singh. The Palace is divided into three functional parts - a luxury Taj Palace Hotel (in existence since 1972), the residence of the erstwhile royal family, and a Museum focusing on the 20th century history of the Jodhpur Royal Family. The opening hours of this museum are 9 am to 5 pm.
  • Lake Palace (formerly known as Jag Niwas) is a luxury hotel, of 83 rooms and suites featuring white marble walls, located on a natural foundation of 4 acres (16,000 m2) rock on the Jag Niwas[1] island[2] in Lake Pichola, Udaipur, India. The hotel operates a boat which transports guests to the hotel from a jetty at the City Palace. It has been voted as the most romantic hotel in India.The palace was constructed facing east, allowing its inhabitants to pray to the Sun god at the crack of dawn.[3] The successive rulers used this cool haven as their summer resort,Lake Palace on Lake Pichola, Udaipur, India
  •  palace located in the middle of the Man Sagar Lake in Jaipur city, the capital of the state of Rajasthan, India. The palace and the lake around it were renovated and enlarged in the 18th century by Maharaja Jai Singh II of AmberThe Jal Mahal palace has got an eye-popping makeover. Traditional boat-makers from Vrindavan have crafted the Rajput style wooden boats. By Rajasthan govt. During 1596 AD, when there was a severe famine in this region there was consequent acute shortage of water. The then ruler of Ajmer was, therefore, motivated to build a dam to store water to overcome the severe hardships caused by the famine to the people inhabiting the region.
  • Aksharadhama :Construction on the temple began on 8 November 2000 and Akshardham was officially opened on 6 November 2005,The main monument,  carved details of flora, fauna, dancers, musicians, and deities.constructed entirely from Rajasthani pink sandstone and Italian Carrara marble, and has no support from steel or concrete. 234 ornately carved pillars, nine domes, and 20,000 murtis and statues of Hinduism’s sadhus, devotees, and acharyas  It contains 148 scale sized elephants in total and weighs a total of 3000 tonsGuinness world record :On 17 December 2007, Michael Whitty, an official world record adjudicator for Guinness World Records, traveled to Ahmedabad, India to present a new world record to Pramukh Swami Maharaj, the spiritual leader of BAPS SwaminarayanSanstha, for the Akshardham complex.[45]The record was presented for Akshardham as the World’s Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple (certificate).[46][47]The certificate states,"BAPS SwaminarayanAkshardham in New Delhi, India, is the world's largest comprehensive Hindu temple. It measures 356 ft (109 m). long, 316 ft (96 m). wide and 141 ft (43 m). high, covering an area of 86,342 sq ft (8,021.4 m2). The grand, ancient-style, ornately hand-carved stone temple has been built without structural steel within five years by 11,000 artisans and volunteers.AkshardhamGandhinagar has attracted millions of visitors from across the world, including Bill Clinton who commented, "Akshardham is not only a unique place in India but in the whole world. It is even more beautiful than what I had imagined. Taj Mahal is definitely beautiful, but this place, along with beauty, has a beautiful message.
  • dream project of Nitish Kumar, Nālandā: ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, IndiaHoused more than 2,000 professors.Free education to more than 10,000 studentsNalanda was one of the world's first residential universities.It is also one of the most famous universities.Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, many meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building library had three main buildings as high as nine stories tall, Ratnasagara (Sea of Jewels), Ratnodadhi (Ocean of Jewels), and Ratnarañjaka (Delighter of Jewels)    Decline and end In 1193, the Nalanda University was sacked by[citation needed] the fanatic BakhtiyarKhilji, a Turk; Thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded as Khilji tried his best to uproot Buddhism and plant Islam The burning of the library continued for several months., 
  • Shravanbelagola Bahubali (Sanskrit: बाहुबली) also called Gomateshwara (Kannada: ಗೊಮ್ಮಟೇಶ್ವರ Tulu: ಗೊಮ್ಮತಾ) was a Jain monk : 60 feet (18 m) above a hill in a place called Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. It was built in the 10th century AD.This statue is regarded as one of the largest monolithic statues in the world.t Shravanabelagola, the Mahamastakabhisheka festival is held once in 12 years, when the image of Gommateshvara is bathed in milk, curds, ghee, saffron and gold coins.The saint is  (55 ft) high and is visible from a distance of 30 km.
  •  Konark Sun Temple By narasimhadeva 1 ,using sandstone  Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty Konark Sun Temple orissa.The Sun Temple, built in the thirteenth century, was conceived as a gigantic chariot of the Sun God, Surya, with twelve pairs of exquisitely ornamented wheels pulled by seven horses.Sun Temple of Konark in OrissaConsidered as one of the worlds best architectural structures, the massive Konark Temple is one of the earliest temples for sun worship. Every year Indian devotees travel to this site to celebrate the Chandrabhaga Festival. Dedicated to the Sun God, the monument was built to look like a horse-drawn chariot used by the deity while traveling the heavens. Konark King Narasimhadev built the structure around 1238 to 1264 AD to landmark his triumph over the Muslims. Legend has it that a huge lodestone on top of temples dome disrupted compasses and this leds to the sinking of nearby ships. UNESCO currently declared The Konark Temple as a World Heritage Site due to the intricate designs, sculptors and engravings throughout the structure.
  • Monuments of india

    1. 1. Monuments In India Presentation By Bharat Malhotra Class:- X-A Roll No:-21
    2. 2. Abstract :I. Indian monuments.II. North Indian Monuments.III. East Indian Monuments.IV. South Indian Monuments.
    3. 3. Indian monuments. Stands unique for its ancient culturesand traditions. Helps in exploring the history & ancientcivilizations of India. Attracts tourist around the globe. Monuments built in the center of big lakes, Himalayan valleys, large rivers, deserts, deepforest .
    4. 4. North Indian monuments.I. Rajasthan.1. Hawa Mahal2. City Palace (udaiPur/JaiPur)3. Jal Mahal. (udaiPur/JaiPur)4. Umaid Bhawan PalaceII Delhi :1. Aksharadhama (Delhi)III. Patna1. Nalanda university.
    5. 5. Hawa Mahal (JaiPur) "Palace of Winds" or “Palace of the Breeze” Built 1799,by Maharaja Sawai Prathapsingh. Design : - Fusion of Hindu Rajput/Islamic Architecture(alike panch Mahal- Fatehpur Sikri). - Five-story pyramidal shaped . - Height of 50 feet. - Designed by Lal Chand Ustad - form of the crown of Krishna/akin to honey comb. - 953 small windows called jharokhas (For Purdhas ). - Built of red and pink sandstone.
    6. 6. Mubarak Mahal : Gangajelies (Silver Vessels) •Two huge sterling silver vessels. (5.2 ft) • Each with capacity of 4000 liters and weighing 340 kilograms •were made from 14000 melted silver coins without soldering - Recorded by the Guinness Book of World Records as the worlds largest sterling silver vessels.
    7. 7. City Palace (Udaipur) Built by Maharana Udai Singh II, in 1559. Includes 11 small separate palaces Inside. Design : Rajasthani, Mughal, Medieval,European and Chinese Architecture)• Distinctly homogeneous and eye catching.• Granite and marble.
    8. 8. Umaid Bhawan Palace• located at Jodhpur in Rajasthan,India, is one of the worlds largestprivate residences.• Construction work wascompleted in 1943.• Monument has 347 rooms.principal residence of Jodhpurroyal family.• The present owner of the Palaceis Maharaj Gaj Singh.
    9. 9. Lake Palace Udaipur• known as Jag Niwas.• Located Udaipur, India.• Is a luxury hotel, of 83 rooms• Marble walls,• Located on a natural foundationof 4 acres (16,000 m2) rock on theJag Niwas island• On the Lake Pichola, Udaipur.• Hotel Taj (Trivia)• Summer Resort for the Rulers ofUdaipur.• Facing East (Worship the sun).
    10. 10. Jal Mahal• Located on the Man SagarLake, Aravali hillsJaipur,(Maharaja Jai Singh II ofAmber)• Builtin the Rajputand Mughal styles of architecture.During 1596,sandstone• 5 storied building, of which fourfloors remain under water whenthe lake is full and the top floor isexposed.
    11. 11. Aksharadhama (Delhi) Guinness world record : * On 17 December 2007.Construction 8 November 2000 - 6 The World’s Largest ComprehensiveNovember 2005, Hindu Temple. * It measures 356 ft (109 m). long, 316 ftThe main monument (96 m).details Flora, fauna, dancers, musi * wide and 141 ft (43 m). high,cians, and deities. * covering an area of 86,342 sq ft (8,021.4 m2). * The grand, ancient-style, ornately hand-Design : carved stone temple * has been built without structural steel 1. Rajasthani pink sandstone and within five years * by 11,000 artisans and volunteers.Italian Carrara marble, 2. No support from steel orconcrete. Bill Clinton : "Akshardham is not only a3. 234 ornately carved pillars, nine unique place in India but in the whole world. It is even more beautifuldomes, and than what I had imagined.4. 20,000 murtis Taj Mahal is definitely beautiful, but this5. 148 scale sized elephants in place, along with beauty,total and weighs a total of has a beautiful message.3000 tons.
    12. 12. Nālandā universityNālandā: (ancient center of higher learning)1. worlds first residential universities.2. Most famous universities.3. Eight separate compounds .4. Ten temples.5. meditation halls and classrooms.6. Library 9 Story TallDecline and end• In 1193, the Nalanda University wassacked by the fanatic Bakhtiya Khilji, a Turk;• Thousands of monks were burned aliveand thousands beheaded as Khilji tried hisbest to uproot Buddhism and plant Islam• The burning of the library continued forseveral months.,
    13. 13. South Indian monuments.Bahubali GomateshwaraShravanbelagola•. A Jain monk.• 60 feet (18 m)• The saint is (55 ft) high and isvisible from a distance of 30 km.• It was built in It was created around 983 AD by Chavundaraya.• This statue is regarded as one ofthe largest monolithic statues in theworld• Mahamastakabhisheka festival isheld once in 12 years, ( bathed inmilk, curds, ghee, saffron and gold
    14. 14. Konark Sun TempleNatya mandir,konarkKonark Sun Temple orissa1. Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty2. sandstone , built in the thirteenth century3. Built the structure around 1238 to 1264 AD.Design :• A gigantic chariot of the Sun God,Surya• Twelve pairs ornamented wheelspulled by seven horses.• One of the worlds best architecturalstructures,• UNESCO currently declared TheKonark Temple as a World HeritageSite due to the intricate designs,sculptors.
    15. 15. Causes for damage The main causes of damage to monuments are: High relative humidity and damp affect monuments as internal wooden dowels and corroding metal fixings will expand. Both lead to splits and, in the case of ferrous armatures, to the staining of the stone. Damp can also weaken joints made with plaster and organic adhesives and thus endanger the structural stability of the sculpture. Alabaster dissolves if exposed to water, for example as a result of blocked guttering and leaking roofs, and Purbeck marble (commonly used to set monumental brasses) breaks down if subjected to damp. Carpeting of floors where the carpet has an impermeable backing, such as rubber, causes damage to floor monuments underneath, including flaking to ledgerstones and corrosion to monumental brasses. Such carpeting also drives moisture into the walls, leading to damaging levels of moisture in wall monuments. Outdoor sculpture can be damaged by erosion through wind and rain, the effects of pollutants, salt crystallization, deterioration due to the presence of lichens or moss, and the cycles of wetting and drying. Monuments inside are generally less affected by destructive salt crystallization than outdoor sculpture. However, salts may enter the stone through contact with damp walls or or floors or by using inappropriate cleaning materials. This can lead to powdering of the surface and loss of sculpted detail. UV and daylight can accelerate the deterioration and discolouration of organic materials used for decoration, such as paint
    16. 16. Conservation of Monuments History and National Importance of Monuments The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 supervises the legal formalities associated with the conservation of historical and archaeological monuments in India. This is "an Act to provide for the preservation of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance, for the regulation of archaeological excavations and for the protection of sculptures, carvings and other like objects." conservation Grouting by pressure and gravity Pointing, types of pointing Underpinning Rock bolting, filleting and edging Inlay work Stucco work Tile work Glass work/mirror work/stained glass work Monitoring of cracks (tell-tales and strain gauges) Plastering (walls and ceilings), lathing, packing with lime concrete and surface treatment, water tightening the tops, purity of water According to this Act, an "ancient monument" means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), State/Central bodies protect monuments that are of national importance. These monuments are called "protected monuments", which mean ancient monuments that are declared to be of national importance by or under this Act. There are 3650 ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance, which are protected by ASI. Overall, there are around 8,000 monuments protected by the government, which include temples, mosques, tombs, churches, cemeteries, forts, palaces, step-wells, rock-cut caves, and secular architecture as well as ancient mounds and sites which represent the remains of ancient habitation.

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