Monuments
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Monuments

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    Monuments Monuments Presentation Transcript

    • THE INDIA GATE IS LOCATED IN DELHI.IT WAS BUILT TO PAY THE HOMAGE TO THE SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN THE 1st WORLD WAR.THERE IS A SHRINE UNDER THE GATE.
    • IT IS LOCATED AT DELHI.ON INDIPENDENCE DAY THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA HOISTS THE NATIONAL FLAG OF INDIA (TIRANGA).
    • IT IS LOCATED AT HYDERAVBAD.IT WAS BUILT BY MAHARAJA SULTAN MOHAMMOD OULI OUTB SHAH.IT IS MORE THAN 400 YEARS OLD.ITS EACH TOWER’S HIGHT IS 53 METRES.
    • IT WAS BUILD BY AN EMPEROR CALLED SHAN JAHAN IN THE MEMORY OF HIS BELOVED WIFE MUMTAZ MAHAL.IT TOOK 20,000 LABOURERS AN CRAFTSMEN TO COMPLETE IT IN 22 YEARS
    • IT IS LOCATED AT BIJAPUR,KARNATA -KA.IT IS THE SECOND LARGEST DOME IN THE WORLD.THIS HUGE DOME STANDS WITHOUT ANY PILLOR.
    • THE QUTUB MINAR IS THE HIGHEST STONE TOWER IN INDIA.IT IS SITUATED AT DELHI.IT WAS STARTED BUILDING BY A KING NAMED QUTUB-UD-DIN AIBAK AND WAS COMPLETED BY ILTUTMISH WHO WAS THE NEXT KING.
    • IT IS LOVATED AT JAIPUR.HAWA MAHAL WAS BUILT BY MAHARAJA SWAI PRATAP SINGH II.IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE PALACE OF WINDS.
    • THE SUN TEMPLE IS SITUATED AT KONARK, NEAR PURI IN ORISSA.THE TEMPLE IS IN THE SHAPE OF A HUGE CCHARIOT WITH TWELVE PAIRS OF HUGE WHEELS DRIVEN BY 7 HOURSES
    • THE MEENAKSHI TEMPLE IS THE MOST FAMOUS TEMPLE OF MADURA.IN THIS TEMPLE ,THERE IS A HALL THAT HAS ONE THOUSAND PILLARS IN IT.
    • Causes for damage• The main causes of damage to monuments are:• High relative humidity and damp affect monuments as internal wooden dowels and corroding metal fixings will expand. Both lead to splits and, in the case of ferrous armatures, to the staining of the stone. Damp can also weaken joints made with plaster and organic adhesives and thus endanger the structural stability of the sculpture.• Alabaster dissolves if exposed to water, for example as a result of blocked guttering and leaking roofs, and Purbeck marble (commonly used to set monumental brasses) breaks down if subjected to damp.• Carpeting of floors where the carpet has an impermeable backing, such as rubber, causes damage to floor monuments underneath, including flaking to ledgerstones and corrosion to monumental brasses. Such carpeting also drives moisture into the walls, leading to damaging levels of moisture in wall monuments.• Outdoor sculpture can be damaged by erosion through wind and rain, the effects of pollutants, salt crystallization, deterioration due to the presence of lichens or moss, and the cycles of wetting and drying.• Monuments inside are generally less affected by destructive salt crystallization than outdoor sculpture. However, salts may enter the stone through contact with damp walls or or floors or by using inappropriate cleaning materials. This can lead to powdering of the surface and loss of sculpted detail. UV and daylight can accelerate the deterioration and discolouration of organic materials used for decoration, such as paint
    • Conservation of Monuments• History and National Importance of Monuments The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 supervises the legal formalities associated with the conservation of historical and archaeological monuments in India. This is "an Act to provide for the preservation of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance, for the regulation of archaeological excavations and for the protection of sculptures, carvings and other like objects."• conservation Grouting by pressure and gravity Pointing, types of pointing Underpinning Rock bolting, filleting and edging Inlay work Stucco work Tile work Glass work/mirror work/stained glass work Monitoring of cracks (tell-tales and strain gauges) Plastering (walls and ceilings), lathing, packing with lime concrete and surface treatment, water tightening the tops, purity of water According to this Act, an "ancient monument" means any structure, erection or monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of historical, archaeological or artistic interest and which has been in existence for not less than 100 years.• Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), State/Central bodies protect monuments that are of national importance. These monuments are called "protected monuments", which mean ancient monuments that are declared to be of national importance by or under this Act. There are 3650 ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance, which are protected by ASI. Overall, there are around 8,000 monuments protected by the government, which include temples, mosques, tombs, churches, cemeteries, forts, palaces, step-wells, rock-cut caves, and secular architecture as well as ancient mounds and sites which represent the remains of ancient habitation.