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what is PBL? how is PBL deliver?

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  • PBL is based on Constructivism/Social Constructivism:
    Understanding through interaction with problem scenario & learning environment
    Piaget (1970) suggested that one of the motivations for intellectual development was the ‘cognitive conflict’ that arises between the child’s experience of the world and understanding it
    Problem inquiry create cognitive conflicts that stimulate learning
    Students are active problem solvers
    Collaborative processes require social negotiation and evaluation of one’s understanding  leads to knowledge construction
    Emphasis is on knowledge acquisition rather than application
  • Problem Encounter
    Define the main problem and highlight specific keywords and issues
    Inductive and deductive analyses
    Problem Analysis
    Generate and articulate specific questions
    Generate possible explanations and hypotheses based on prior experiences or knowledge
    Make links to relevant theories/research
    Formulate learning objectives
    Peer Teaching and Discovery
    Formulation and Evaluation of Solution
    Generate and choose appropriate solutions based on theory and research
    Evaluate solutions
  • Problem Statement: Students’ interpretation of the problem. An overarching statement of the problem; the problem stated in its most succinct and comprehensive form
    Learning Issues are topics where students need to search and study in order to solve or explain the problem (usually state in the form of questions)
    Hypotheses/Explanations: Informed guesses or research-based explanations to the learning issues
    Learning Objectives: Specific learning objectives when researching on the learning issues
  • PBL

    1. 1. Session 4 Problem-Based Learning: An Overview What is PBL? Why PBL? How to do PBL? BEd (Secondary) ES001: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNERS AND LEARNING
    2. 2. What is Problem-Based Learning (PBL)? “An education process that requires the learner to go through the same activities during learning that are valued in the real world… The intent is to challenge the learner with problems found in practice both as a stimulus for learning and as a focus for organizing what has been learned for later recall and application to future work.” (Professor Howard Barrows as quoted in Boud & Feletti, 2001) 01/29/15 2
    3. 3. What is Problem-Based Learning (PBL)? The essence of problem-based instruction involves the presentation of authentic and meaningful situations that serve as starting points for student investigation and inquiry. 01/29/15 3
    4. 4. 01/29/15 4 Theoretical Bases of PBL
    5. 5. 01/29/15 5 Characteristics of PBL • The problem is the starting point of learning • Subject matter is organized around the problems rather than the discipline • Forces the students to work and learn the basic principles of the subject in the context of solving a problem • Real world problem – appeared unstructured • Problems call for several sources of knowledge • Self-directed learning is primary • Students assume major responsibility for information/knowledge acquisition.
    6. 6. Characteristics of PBL • Learning is collaborative, communicative and co-operative • Peer learning, peer teaching & group presentation are essential • Role of teacher: facilitates & coaches through questioning and cognitive coaching. • Development of inquiry & problem solving skills is as important as content knowledge acquisition • Production of artifacts + exhibits • The learning environment of PBL is characterised by openness, active student involvement, + an atmosphere of intellectual freedom 01/29/15 6
    8. 8. 01/29/15 8 A Model of Curriculum Shift Conventional Approach PBL Approach Content Teacher Students Problem Solvers ©2000 Tan, Oon Seng
    9. 9. 01/29/15 9 PBL At-A-Glance An educational methodology that involves:  Real world challenges  Higher order thinking skills  Interdisciplinary learning  Independent learning  Information mining skills  Teamwork  Communication skills
    10. 10. Why PBL? Some Learner Outcomes PBL was not designed to help teachers convey huge quantities of information to students. Inquiry, Critical Thinking + Problem- Solving Skills Integration of curricula knowledge into the solution of authentic problems Teamwork, Presentation, Communication Skills Skills for Independent Learning, Intrinsic Motivation
    11. 11. 01/29/15 11 PBL Learner Outcomes • Increased knowledge retention • Integrated and relevant knowledge • Enhancement of intrinsic interest • Reasoning skills • SDL skills • Collaborative learning • Becoming motivated and lifelong learners
    12. 12. PBL Objectives For learners to go through the same activities during learning that are valued in the real world
    13. 13. The PBL Process Self-Directed Learning Self-Directed Learning Self-Directed Learning Self-Directed Learning Tan, O.S. (2003)
    14. 14. 01/29/15 14 The Problem-Solving Cycle: An Example 1. Define the main problem 2. Identify subsidiary issues and research questions 3. Generate possible explanations, hypotheses 4. Make links to relevant theories and research 5. Generate alternative solutions 6. Choose appropriate solutions 7. Test out the chosen solutions 8. Evaluate results/outcomes DYNAMIC AND ITERATIVE
    15. 15. Meeting the Problem  Problem scenario acts as a stimulus to scaffold and extend a realistic context students may encounter in the future • Developing collegiality • Individual reading, reflection and inquiry • Commitment to team roles and the group • Brainstorming and articulation of probable issues • Reaching consensus on the problem statement • Commitment to deliberate on the problem scenario and problem analysis 01/29/15 15
    16. 16. Problem Analysis and Learning Issues  Students’ prior knowledge is activated  Ideas are generated that call for further learning  Students are required to work independently on their own, searching for information through various resources (e.g., books, journals, Internet resources) • Brainstorming & analysis of problem (e.g., generation of possible explanations and hypotheses) • Identification of learning issues and formulation of learning objectives • Assignment of self-directed learning and peer teaching tasks  PBL facilitator prompts to ensure key areas are not overlooked 01/29/15 16
    17. 17. 01/29/15 17 Discovery and Reporting  Students report their discovery of learning to their own groups • Peer teaching • Students gather to share the new information they have individually discovered • Group collaboration and communication skills through questioning and seeking of further information from each other
    18. 18. Solution Presentation and Reflection • Present solution to problem scenario • Reflect on and evaluate their knowledge, understanding and approach • Contextualize and apply knowledge to the situation • Demonstrate their new knowledge • Sometimes, more questions may be asked 01/29/15 18
    19. 19. Overview, Integration and Evaluation • Closure to the problem based learning • PBL facilitator summarizes and integrates what has been learned and highlights gaps in knowledge • Students critique their learning resources (e.g., value, reliability and usefulness for future learning) • Reflect on the new knowledge they have learned as a result of the problem • Members of groups also evaluate their performance as learners in terms of being problem-solvers, self-directed learners, and as members of the team 01/29/15 19