• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Adolescence Development-introduction

on

  • 9,424 views

The introduction of adolescence development module. This is the first of 3 ppts.

The introduction of adolescence development module. This is the first of 3 ppts.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
9,424
Views on SlideShare
9,420
Embed Views
4

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
246
Comments
0

1 Embed 4

http://www.texiladigipedia.com 4

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Development moves through the infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence and early adulthood periods. These periods of development are the result of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes.

Adolescence Development-introduction Adolescence Development-introduction Presentation Transcript

  • ES001: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:
    BEd (Secondary)
    LEARNERS AND LEARNING
    Session 1
    Introduction to Educational Psychology, Adolescence and Adolescent Development
  • Psychology Educational Psychology
    Content:
    • What do you know about it?
    • What do you need to know about it?
    • How ed.psy helps teachers and students?
  • The Role of Education Psychology
    After you got the knowledge, then what are you going to do with it?
    How do we face current situation?
    Do we change our practices as often as we should?
    How do we know if changes we make are effective?
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  • What is it?
    Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
    Educational psychology is the branch of psychology that specialises in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings.
  • Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching
    Teaching as Science & Art
    As a science, educational psychology’s aim is to provide you with research knowledge that you can effectively apply to your teaching situations.
    But your teaching will still remain an art.
  • Some Key Areas in Educational Psychology
  • ADOLESCENCE
  • What is Adolescence?
    A period of transition from childhood to adulthood, marked by major physical changes of puberty and important cognitive and socialchanges
  • PERSPECTIVES ON ADOLESCENCE
  • Historical Perspective
    Early History
    In early Greece, the philosophers commented about the nature of youth.
    Plato (4th Century B.C.)
    Aristotle (4th Century B.C.)
    In the Middle Ages, children and adolescents were viewed as miniature adults and were subject to harsh discipline.
    In the 18th Century, the French philosopher Jean-JacquesRousseau offered a more enlightened view of adolescence.
  • Historical Perspective
    The 20th & 21st Centuries
    • G. Stanley Hall’s Storm-and-Stress View
    • Margaret Mead’s Sociocultural View
    • The Inventionist View
    • Further Changes in the 20th and 21st Centuries
    The women’s movement
    The dual family and career objectives
    Increased use of media and technology by adolescents
    Increased diversity
  • ADOLESCENTS TODAY
  • Activity: Adolescents Today
    Note down some of your observations about adolescents today.
    Share these observations within your group.
    The observations can be generic ones relating to any aspects of their lives including fashion, appearances, attitudes and language,
    And/ Or
    characteristics and traits of adolescents which fascinate you.
  • Stereotypes of Adolescents
    Stereotype: A generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad category of people.
    All stereotypes carry an image of what the typical member of a particular group is like.
  • Stereotypes of Adolescents:
  • Some Examples:
    • “They are all lazy”
    • “They don’t want to work”
    • “They are all sex fiends”
    • “They are all into drugs”
    • “They say they want a job, but when they get one, they don’t want to work”
    • “The problem with adolescents today is that they all have it too easy”
  • A Positive View of Adolescence
    • The negative stereotyping of adolescents is overdrawn.
    (Benson & others, 2006; Collins & Steinberg, 2006).
    • Psychologists now focus on the positive side of human experience and greater emphasis on hope, optimism, positive individual traits, creativity, and positive group and civic values, such as responsibility, nurturance, civility, and tolerance.
    (Benson & others, 2006; Reinders & Youniss, 2006).
  • A Positive View of Adolescence
    • Adults’ perceptions of adolescents emerge from a combination of personal experience and media portrayals, neither of which produces an objective picture of how typical adolescents develop (Feldman & Elliott, 1990).
  • A Positive View of Adolescence
    • It is an enormous error to confuse adolescents’ enthusiasm for trying on new identities and indulging in occasional episodes of outrageous behaviour with hostility toward parental and societal standards.
  • Today’s Adolescents in the U.S. and Around the World
    "It’s the best of times and the worst of times.”
    • Televisions, computers, cell phones, and air travel are often the norm, not the exception.
    • However, the temptations and hazards of the adult world descend on adolescents so early that too often they are not cognitively and emotionally ready to handle them effectively.
  • Youth Around The World
    • Two-thirds of Asian Indian adolescents accept their parents’ choice of a marital partner for them
    (Verma & Saraswathi, 2002).
    • In the Philippines, many female adolescents sacrifice their own futures by migrating to the city to earn money that they can send home to their families.
  • Youth Around The World
    • Street youth in Kenya and other parts of the world learn to survive under highly stressful circumstances. In some cases abandoned by their parents, they may engage in delinquency or prostitution to provide for their economic needs.
    • In the Middle East, many adolescents are not allowed to interact with the other sex, even in school (Booth, 2002).
    • Cultural differences among adolescents have by no means disappeared (Berry, 2007; Larson & Wilson, 2004; Saraswathi, 2006).
  • Youth Around The World
    • Rapid global change is altering the experience of adolescence, presenting new opportunities and challenges to young people’s health and well-being.
    • Around the world, adolescents’ experiences may differ depending on their gender, families, schools, and peers (Brown & Larson, 2002; Larson & Wilson, 2004).
  • Youth Around The World
    Brad Brown and Reed Larson (2002) summarized some of these changes and traditions in the world’s youth:
    • Health and well-being
    • Gender
    • Family
    • School
    • Peers
    Adolescents’ lives are characterized by a combination of change and tradition.
  • ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT
  • The Nature of Development
    Development:
    The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.Most development involves growth, although it also includes decay (death and dying).
  • Development Processes
    Developmental Changes are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
  • Development Processes
    (Continued from previous slide)
    Biological
    processes
    Physical changes
    within an
    individual’s body.
    Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
  • Development Processes
    (Continued from previous slide)
    Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
    Cognitive
    processes
    Changes in
    thinking and
    intelligence.
  • Development Processes
    (Continued from previous slide)
    Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
    Socioemotional
    processes
    Changes in
    relationships, emotions,
    personality,
    and social contexts.
  • Periods of Development (Santrock, 2008)
    • Prenatal Period
  • Periods of Development
    • Middle Adulthood
    • Late Adulthood
    • Old Age
  • Periods of Development
    Infancy
    Early childhood
    Middle & Late Childhood
    Adolescence
    Early adulthood
    Processes of Development
    Periods and Processes of Development (Santrock, 2008)
  • Developmental Issues
    • Nature vs. Nurture
    • Continuity vs. Discontinuity
    • Early vs. Later Experience
    • One Course of Development or Many?
    Stability or Change?
  • Maturation and Experience (Nature vs. Nurture)
    Nature:
    An organism’s biological inheritance.
    Nurture: Environmental experiences
  • The Nature Vs. Nurture Controversy
    The nature proponents:
    Biological inheritance is the most important influence on development.
    The nurture proponents:
    Environmental experiences are the most important.
  • How is our intelligences?
    Is it nature or nurture?
    How about our body proportional?
    Nature or Nurture?
    How about our learning style?
  • 2. Continuity and Discontinuity
    Continuity of development
    The view that development involves gradual cumulative change from conception to death
    Discontinuity of development
    The view that development involves distinct stages in life span
  • 3. Early and Later Experience
    Focuses on the degree to which early experiences (especially in infancy) or later experiences are the key determinants of the child’s development.
  • 4. One Course of Development or Many?
    The same sequence of development for all children?
    Or do different contexts, and unique combinations of genetic and environmental circumstances result in different paths of change?
  • Evaluating the Developmental Issues
    • It’s unwise to take an extreme position on developmental issues
    • Nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experience all affect our development throughout the human life span
    • The above consensus has not meant the absence of spirited debate
  • Social Contexts of Development
    • Contexts are the settings in which development occurs.
    • Contexts are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
    • Adolescent development occurs against
    a cultural backdrop that includes family, peers, school, church, neighborhood, community, region, and nation (Berry, 2007; McLoyd, Aikens, & Burton, 2006; Parke & Buriel, 2006; Shirev & Levy, 2007).
  • Bronfenbrenner’s theory focuses on the social contexts in which people live and the people who influence their development.
    Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
  • Microsystem:Direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others.
    Mesosystem:Linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers.
    Exosystem: Experiences insettings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences.
    Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
  • Macrosystem: The broader culture in which students and teachers live.
    Chronosystem: The sociohistorical conditions of a student’s development.
    Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological TheoryTheory into Practice
    Sid’s father left his family years ago and provides no support for them. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participation in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father
    Q.1:What aspects of Sid’s microsystem are discussed in the example?Explain.
    Q.2:What aspects of Sid’s exosystem are discussed in the example?Explain.
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological TheoryTheory into Practice
    Sid’s father left them years ago and provides no support for the family. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participate in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father.
    Q.3:How is the mesosystem currently operating for Sid? Explain.
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Theory in the Classroom
    Think about children embedded in several environmental systems and influences
    Attend to connections between school and families
    Recognize the importance of community, culture, and socioeconomic status
  • Development and Education
    Understanding children’s development enables teachers to know the level at which it is appropriate to teach their students
    Importance of developmentally appropriate teaching practices
  • Development and Education
    Developmentally appropriate teaching takes place at a level that is neither too difficult and stressful nor too easy and boring for the child’s developmental level.
    Challenges of ‘splintered development’ (Horowitz, et. al., 2005)