INTI 13 - Vulnérabilités territoriales et résiliences : résistances et capacités d’adaptation face aux enjeux climatiques

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INTI 13 - Vulnérabilités territoriales et résiliences : résistances et capacités d’adaptation face aux enjeux climatiques

  1. 1. THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE INSCENARIOS RISK: A CASE STUDYCOMMUNITY INDIGENOUS NASA INHUILA COLOMBIAYolanda Hernández Peña, Facultad del Medio Ambiente yRecursos Naturales. Universidad Distrital Francisco José deCaldas. Bogotá. Colombia. ythernandezp@udistrital.edu.coPhilippe Woloszyn, ESO UMR 6590 CNRS/UniversitéRennes2. philippe.woloszyn@univ-rennes2.fr
  2. 2. Fuente: Con base en Procesado y georeferenciado por el Observatorio del Programa Presidencial deDH y DIH. Vicepresidencia de la República, Base cartográfica: IGAC. 2010The study areas are located in at central and western of Colombia,northwestern of South America, with an area of 2.070. 408 km² inhabitedby 46 million people. Geologically, the country is at the Pacific Ring, and istherefore particularly exposed to earthquakes, tsunamis and volcaniceruptions.THE NASA TERRITORY
  3. 3. THE NATURALINJURY LOCATION
  4. 4. At 15:47 local time on June 6, 1994 anearthquake occurred, which epicenter waslocated at municipality of Paez, belonging tothe hillsides of the mountain system of thevulcano Nevado del Huila (Cardona, 1995) byprior hydrometeorological behavior, andbecause of the geomorphologicalcharacteristics of landslides occurred in thearea then generated a debris flow, causingcasualties, destruction of physicalinfrastructure, and impacting theenvironment severely.Fuente fotografía:http://enosaquiwilches.blogspot.com/2010/02/aprendamos-del-agua.htmlEffects of the earthquake and the flood of theriver Paez - Tierradentro, Colombia (1994)THE NATURAL PHENOMENON
  5. 5. Fuente (INGEOMINAS- CAUCA, 2008)Volcano Nevado del HuilaSight in a Landsat image mosaic Nevado delHuila Volcano and River Basin south Paéz
  6. 6. NASA CAPACITANCE. FACTORSClose relationship-society-nature-cultureNasa "social capacitance" factorNasa "economical capacitance" factorVulnerability andresilience are twocorrelative factorsin scenarios risk
  7. 7. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductance
  8. 8. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductanceClose relationship-society-nature-culture
  9. 9. NASA SOCIAL CAPACITANCEFuente: Revista Semana. Cauca semoviliza por la paz. 10 mayo 2012Cultural dimension of "socialcapacitance" factor:• The territory is the principal frameof cultural identity.• Thë Wala", is the mediatorbetween the natural environmentand the indigenous Nasa
  10. 10. (Caycedo, Figueroa, & Nieto, 2007):• The land of the Nasa will neverpass into the hands of strangers• Nasa Indians never be defeated• It will respond to any aggression• Nasa people should never mix theirblood• Not fight allowed between NasapeopleNASA SOCIAL CAPACITANCEHistorical dimension of Nasa "socialcapacitance" factor• In 1540, the Nasa indigenous armyvictoriously fought the SpanishSebastian de Belalcazar• Juan Tama their firsttranscendental figure in colonialtimes (1.696)• Quintin Lame, in the earlytwentieth century, lead epicstruggles to establish the slogan of"Paez self-determination ".
  11. 11. NASA ECONOMICAL CAPACITANCEFACTORProblems with land scarcityThe "Minga" is an important expression ofsocial organization, which allowscommunities to realize cooperative workto meet collective needs.Many of them where reduced to the statusof mere "terrajeros", implying land usepaymentCauca Minga de PensamientoFuente: www.cric-colombia.org
  12. 12. The Nasa and its response to the floodof 1994• The culture threat from this disaster was understood by the Nasa as acall of nature, thus a call from Juan Tama for the indigenous people toreturn to their cultural values lost by the presence of illicit crops andthe consumer society.• According to (Stuart-Olson & Sarmiento, 1995), social consolidationafter the disaster was based on community home and meal sharing, inorder to protect orphans and homeless in those particular conditions.• The crisis that affected the Nasa community, (Wilches-Chaux 1995)recognize the existence of indigenous forms of autonomous andtraditional organization leding to dialogue and reconstructionactivities , so that ideas about the family and the community leadingto social management constitutes the social inductance effect of theNasa on their crisis resolution.
  13. 13. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductanceClose relationship-society-nature-culture
  14. 14. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductanceClose relationship-society-nature-culture
  15. 15. The Nasa and its response to thenatural phenomenon NOW• The Nasa cultural consolidation have generated an important cultural-based resilience process for risk managing. They have created anorganizational structure to monitor Huila volcano activity, working inconjunction with INGEOMINAS Colombia office, with providing bothseismological records and “Thë Wala” interpreted in the light of theirown cultural biomarkers, (Coyo, 2010) and (Piñacue, 2012).• As a consequence, they created their own strategy for risk managementat a social level, through managing a dialogue between contemporarytechnical knowledge represented by geological science and theirhistorical cultural knowledge, through the “Thë Wala” action drivers
  16. 16. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductanceClose relationship-society-nature-culture
  17. 17. Socioeconomical VulnerabilitySocialConductanceSocialCapacitanceSocialInductanceEconomicalConductanceEconomicalCapacitanceEconomicalInductanceEcologicalConductanceEcologicalCapacitanceEcologicalInductanceClose relationship-society-nature-culture
  18. 18. Conclusions• In the cases of Nasa indigenous, specific cultural pattern, characterizedfor an knowledge about the environmental, and historical processes ofland occupation, i.e. myths and legends about the natural phenomenonand the nature itself, allow them to overcome their traumatic situations,thanks to that social network they have created ancestrally.• So, despite the social and cultural crisis processes due to externalfactors, the Nasa indigenous solidarity strategies reflecting traditionalcultural practices constitute the basis of their proactive resilience facingthe consequences of natural injury• Through cultural patterns negociation, their corresponding socialcapacitance construction organization enable vulnerability edgesovercoming, through allowing them to survive independently despiteadverse economic environmental and social conditions.• Thus, the meaning of the flood of 1994 allowed them consolidate as aresilient territorial community.

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