Specific results: about the territories observation
-There can not be observation without actors, it refers to time and, in the specific framework of geography, it locates space in the concerns centre. -Observation can be defined as the glance on an item during a certain pace of time, a set of elements that interact.
In other fields, it is not the case. In the environment field in particular, the information is only available in few measurement points (meteorological stations, contaminants measurement stations) that are far the ones from the others.
The cartography is a discipline that evolves simultaneously with the sciences it uses.
Nevertheless, some obstacles remained: the scale determination, the information selection, the visualisation from a particular point of view are choices that have to be made by the cartographer and that make a map a fixed ad hoc document .
Presently, the computer-science and the recent technologies offer new possibilities. They are mainly based on the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and on the experience of the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) or of the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA).
The main characteristics of this cartography, which is necessarily multi-media and interactive, and the possibilities they offer can be presently broadly valorised in the collaborative and pluri-disciplinary studies that are linked to territorial intelligence, as a tool to help thinking and then making a decision.
CAENTI INTERNAL STATE OF ART ABOUT TERRITORY (Aix-en-Provence > Alba Iulia)
Territory is a human and social « construction »
Territory is an « appropried » space
Territory includes not obligatory only adjacent spaces
Territory is structured by social networks
Territory is a whole of resources
Territory comes from past (heritage) and looks for future (project)
Territory knows tensions between « local » and « global »
Territory can generate multiple memberships
- Territory can produce effects (« effects of territory »)
INTERDISCIPLINARY DEFINITION OF TERRITORY (Aix-en-Provence > Alba Iulia)
There is not territory, included immaterial territory, without collective projection of their actors on to a commun structuring future, which generate identitary and symbolic (CHAMPOLLION & PIPONNIER, 2005)
Most of laboratories which are working about territory are in the big european countries laboratories of geography and of sociology : in France there are in this case 59 geographic laboratories and 67 sociological laboratories against 41 in science of education and 45 in ICS