Carmín's Spanish 2 Grammar Book 2.0


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My second edition of my grammar book for spanish 2. Yeah, yeah....

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Carmín's Spanish 2 Grammar Book 2.0

  1. 1. Spanish 2 Grammar Book<br />Carmín Martin<br />
  2. 2. Table of contents<br />Ser............<br />Estar..........……<br />Verbs like Gustar...<br />Hacer Expressions...<br />Pretérito...........<br />Trigger Words.....<br />Car Gar Zars......<br />Spock Verbs......<br />Cucaracha Verbs.....<br />DOPs...............<br />IOPs...............<br />Commands..........<br />Irregular commands...<br />Snakes..............<br />Snakeys..............<br />Se impersonal.........<br />Past Participles…..<br />Irregular Past Part.<br />Futuro<br />Futuro Irregulars<br />Demonstartive Adjs.<br />Demonstrative Pronouns.<br />Imperfect ……………….<br />Imprefect Irregulars……<br />Tú Commands…………...<br />Tú Commands Irr………..<br />Modal Verbs……………..<br />Other Modal Verbs………<br />Reflexives……………….<br />Some Reflexives…………<br />Saber vs. Conocer………..<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />14<br />15<br />16<br />17<br />18<br />19<br />20<br />21<br />22<br /> 23<br /> 24<br /> 25<br /> 26<br /> 27<br /> 28<br /> 29<br /> 30<br /> 31<br /> 32<br />Words inredare Examples. Words inlightblueare infinitive verbs. <br />
  3. 3. SER<br />Descriptions<br />Origin<br />Characteristics<br />Time<br />Occupation<br />Relationships<br />Possession<br />Events<br />Dates<br />
  4. 4. Estar<br />Health<br />Emotions<br />Location<br />Present condition<br />ING (ar–ando, er/ir–-endo/-yendo)<br />
  5. 5. Verbs Like Gustar<br />Doler (o->ue)<br />Fascinar<br />Molestar<br />Encantar<br />Faltar<br />Importar<br />Disgustar<br />Interestar<br />Me disgusta el espinago. <br />Nos molesta Justin Bieber.<br />
  6. 6. Hacer Expressions<br />Hace + time + “que” + conjugated verb<br />Hace dos días que corro.<br />(English: It has been 2 days since I ran.)<br />
  7. 7. Preterito<br />
  8. 8. Trigger Words<br />Ayer<br />Anteayer<br />A las ocho*<br />El miercoles*<br />El día anterior<br />El lunes* pasado<br />El fin de semana*<br />Ayer por la mañana<br />El otro día <br />Una vez<br />Esta tarde*<br />Esta noche*<br />Entonces<br />Desde el primer momento<br />Durante dos siglos*<br />En ese momente<br />Hace dos* días<br />*Changes with time/day/month/year/time period<br />
  9. 9. -Car -Gar -Zars<br />Only change in the “yo” form.<br />-Car -> -qué<br />-Gar -> -gué<br />-Zar -> -cé<br />Comencé la prueba. <br />Jugaron fútbol. <br />
  10. 10. Spock” Verbs “<br />IR SER<br />DAR VER<br />HACER<br />
  11. 11. “Spock” Verbs (cont’d)<br />
  12. 12. Cucaracha Verbs<br />Andar -><br />Estar -><br />Poder -><br />Poner -><br />Querer -><br />Saber -><br />Tener -><br />Vener -><br />Conducir -><br />Producir -><br />Traducir -><br />Decir -><br />Traer -><br />Anduv-<br />Estuv-<br />Pud-<br />Pus-<br />Quis-<br />Sup-<br />Tuv-<br />Vin-<br /> Conduj-<br /> Produj-<br /> Traduj-<br />Dij-<br />Traj-<br />
  13. 13. DOPs<br />Direct Object Pronouns<br />Go before the conjugated verb<br />Can only hook onto the conjugated verb in 3 instances:<br />Infinitive<br />Affirmative Commands<br />Gerunds (-ing verbs)<br />Cómalo. No lo comió.<br />
  14. 14. IOPs<br />Indirect Object Pronouns<br />ALWAYS also have a DOP and ALWAYS go before the conjugated verb AND DOP.<br />Me lo di. <br />Se lo leyó. <br />* Changes to ‘se’ when using a third person DOP (lo/los or la/las)<br />
  15. 15. Commands<br />
  16. 16. Irregular Commands<br />TVDISHES:<br />Tener -> Tenga Dar-> Dé <br />Vener -> Venga Ir -> Vaya <br />Sea -> Ser <br />Hacer -> Hago<br />Estar -> Esté <br />Saber -> Sepa<br />
  17. 17. Snakes<br />For Snake verbs, the first vowel in the third person changes. For ‘dormir’, the ‘o’ changes to a ‘u’. For ‘pedir’, the ‘e’ changes to an ‘i’.<br />
  18. 18. Snakeys<br />Snakey verbs are verbs that change the second ‘e’ in the verb. These go into verbs such as leer, creer, oir, etc. For first and second person, the second ‘e’ changes to an ‘i’, and in third person, the ‘e’ changes to a ‘y’. <br />
  19. 19. Se Impersonal<br />In order to not specify who is doing the action of the verb, ‘se’ is used. The verb ALWAYS needs to be in third person, and can be used in all tenses. <br />Se corre en el parque. <br />Se comío la hamburguesa.<br />
  20. 20. Past Participles As Adjectives<br />MUST agree with the nouns they modify in both gender AND number!<br />Add –ando for –ar verbs and –iendo for –ir/-er verbs. <br />La manzanacomienda.<br />El pollocomiendo. <br />
  21. 21. Irregular Past Participles<br />Abrir -> Abierto<br />Decir -> Dicho<br />Morir -> Muerto<br />Romper -> Roto<br />Ir -> Ido<br />Hacer -> Hecho<br />Volver -> Vuelto<br />Escribir -> Escrito<br />Poner-> Puesto<br />Ver -> Visto<br />Cubrir -> Cubierto<br />Resolver -> Resuelto<br />
  22. 22. FUTURO<br />*Nosotros is the ONLY tense that you DON’T put an accent over the ending!<br />Yocomerémañana.<br />Ustedescomerán.<br />
  23. 23. Irregulars<br />When hooking on the appropriate ending, these verbs change:<br />Decir -> Dic-<br />Poner -> Pondr-<br />Tener -> Tendr-<br />Venir -> Vendr-<br />Querer -> Querr-<br />Caber -> Cabr-<br />Hacer -> Har-<br />Salir -> Saldr-<br />Valer -> Valdr-<br />Poder -> Podr-<br />Saber -> Sabr-<br />Haber -> Habr-<br />
  24. 24. Imperfect Tense<br />Used in the past, like a movie clip. More than one specific moment. <br />Remember Abas and Ibas!<br />NO stem changes in the imperfect!!!<br />← -ar Verbs<br />-er/-ir Verbs -><br />
  25. 25. Irregulars<br />Three irregulars: Ser, Ir, and Ver<br />Terms in the charts are COMPLETELY conjugated!<br />
  26. 26. Tú Commands (Informal)<br />Used with classmates, siblings, younger people<br />Affirmative: simply drop the ‘s’<br />Negative: Conjugate to ‘yo’ form, change to opposite vowel, add an ‘s’.<br />Don’t forget to add the accent on the third from last vowel if you’re hooking on a DOP!<br />¡Cómelo!<br />¡No duermas!<br />
  27. 27. Irregulars<br /><ul><li>These are irregulars for the affirmative tú command.
  28. 28. For the negatives, conjugate regularly. </li></ul>Decir -> Di<br />Hacer -> Haz<br />Ir -> Ve<br />Poner -> Pon<br />Salir -> Sal<br />Ser -> Sé<br />Tener -> Ten<br />Venir -> Ven<br />¡Hazlo! <br />¡No hagas!<br />
  29. 29. Modal Verbs<br />Used to help verbs and change their meaning. <br />Used with infinitives. <br />Most used is ir+a+infinitive<br />Means “going to”<br />Conjugate the ir, but not the infinitve!<br />Voy a comprar.<br />
  30. 30. Other Modal Verbs<br />Poder* (to be able to)+ inf.<br />Querer(to want) + inf.<br />Deber (sound) + inf. <br />Tenerque (to have to) + inf.<br />*Stem-changer (o -> ue)<br />Tengoquecomprarunacamisetanueva.<br />
  31. 31. Reflexive Verbs<br />What makes them reflexive are the pronouns<br />Makes the subject do the action to itself<br />*Se is the same for both singular and plural.<br />
  32. 32. Some Reflexive Verbs<br />Bañarse -> To bathe yourself<br />Acostarse -> To go to bed<br />Dormirse -> To fall asleep<br />Levantarse -> To get up<br />Sentarse -> To sit down<br />*When you see a reflexive pronoun attached to the infinitive, it’s a reflexive verb!!!<br />Me baño.<br />Se duerme.<br />
  33. 33. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber and Conocer both mean “to know”, but they are used in different situations. <br />Saber is used for facts and information<br />Yosé los capitales de los EstadosUnidos.<br />Conocer is used for people, places, and literary information.<br />Yoconozco la familia de Martinez.<br />