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Chapter 5Survey research                  1
Learning Objectives• Identify the information required to be  collected through a survey• Describe and justify the appropr...
Survey Design
Survey Design• Survey: the overall planning, design  and administration process involved in  obtaining data using a questi...
Nature of surveys• Survey: a method of collecting primary data in  which information is gathered by  communicating with a ...
Survey objectives: type of         information gathered• Attempt to describe what is happening or to  learn the reasons fo...
Advantages of surveys•   Quick•   Inexpensive•   Efficient•   Accurate•   Flexible.                                 7
Advantages of Surveys                                                        Group Statistics                             ...
Disadvantages of Surveys• Difficult developing surveys• Need to develop constructs, scale  measurements, survey design• Re...
Determine the Information          Required• Begin with clear research objectives,  information needed, hypotheses and  sc...
From Whom• Target population will influence several  aspects of survey design including:   – survey communication method  ...
How do you determine how many people are               interviewed?        William Burlace, Director, Media Services      ...
Methods of Data Collection•   Personal interviewing•   Telephone interviewing•   Mail surveys•   On-line surveys•   Fax su...
Personal interviews• Form of direct communication in which an  interviewer asks respondents questions face–  to–face.• Ver...
The advantages of personal interviews • Opportunity for feedback • Probing complex answers    – Interviewer asks the respo...
Disadvantages of personal             interviews• Interviewer influence   – Different interviewer characteristics and     ...
Personal interviews:      Door-to-Door Interviews• Interview conducted at the respondent’s  homeAdvantages• When personal ...
Personal interviews:      Executive Interviews• Interviewing business people at their  officesDisadvantages• Very expensiv...
Personal interviews:    Shopping Centre InterceptAdvantages• Travel costs are eliminated• Interviewer can interact with re...
Personal interviews:    Purchase Intercept technique• Intercept customers while in the shopping  environmentAdvantages• Ai...
Personal interviews:        Computer Assisted• Computer-assisted personal  interviewing (CAPI)• Direct entry of research i...
Door–to–door interviews and       shopping mall intercepts• Door–to–door interviews are conducted at  respondents’ doorste...
Telephone interviews• Personal interview conducted by telephone.• Speedy data collection• Relatively inexpensive• Absence ...
Telephone interviews• Central location: 1300 or 1800 lines to a  central location• Computer–assisted: answers to telephone...
Telephone InterviewingStrengths• Relatively inexpensive• Yields a very high sample• QuickWeaknesses• Inability of responde...
Telephone Interviewing cont.Traditional telephone interviews• Paper and pencil.Disadvantages• Difficult to measure quality...
Telephone Interviewing:       Computer AssistedComputer-assisted telephone  interviewing (CATI)• Computerised survey admin...
Telephone Interviewing:    Computer Assisted cont.Advantages• Computer dials phone number• Computer skips questions       ...
Telephone Interviewing:       Computer AutomatedComputer automated telephone systems  (CATS)• Computer-synthesised voices ...
Self Administered Surveys:           Direct Mail• Survey is developed and mailed to pre-  selected respondents who return ...
Self Administered Surveys:           Direct Mail cont.Advantages• No interviewers to recruit, train,  monitor and compensa...
Methods Used to Increase Response                  Rates•   Preliminary notification•   Foot-in-the-door•   Personalisatio...
Self Administered Surveys:           Mail Panels• Large representative sample of households  that have agreed to participa...
Self Administered Surveys:          Mail Panels cont.Advantages• Panel can be tested prior to the survey to  obtain a repr...
Example: Roy Morgan Single          Source• Roy Morgan research company surveys  over 50, 000 Australians each year on a  ...
Explain the methodological rigor behind the single                  source monitor?            William Burlace, Director, ...
Response rate• The number of questionnaires returned or  completed divided by the number of eligible  people who were aske...
Increasing response rates for mail                 surveys•   Stamped return envelope•   Attractive questionnaires•   Cove...
Self–administered questionnaires that    use other forms of distribution•   In–flight and in–store•   Drop–off method•   E...
Self Administered Surveys:          Drop-off Survey• A representative of the researcher hand-  delivers survey forms to re...
Self Administered Surveys:      Drop-off Surveys cont.Advantages• Availability of a person who can answer  general questio...
Computer Assisted Surveys: FaxAdvantages• Flexibility of mail• Speed of the telephone• Administration and clerical functio...
Computer Assisted Surveys:            E-Mail• A survey using plain text which is e-mailed  for the respondent to read, com...
Computer Assisted Surveys:            On-line• Use HTML to write the survey.• Survey can be found on the web or emailed  t...
How have you changed the way you administer surveys at Colmar                          Brunton?                   Peter Ke...
Preparing your own          on-line survey• A number of companies allow you to  design your own survey   – www.surveymonke...
A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods
Combining Methods• Several alternatives are available• Allows researcher to capitalise on  strengths and minimise limitati...
Factors Affecting     Choice of Survey Method•   Sampling•   Type of population•   Question form•   Question content•   Re...
Length of Questionnaire• Influenced by:   – information required   – characteristics of respondents   – communication meth...
Errors in survey research                            51
Random sampling error• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of  change variation in the elements selected for  th...
Systematic error• Systematic error results from some imperfect  aspect of the research design or from a  mistake in the ex...
Respondent error• A classification of sample bias resulting from  some respondent action or inaction.   – Non–response err...
Non–response error• Non–response error: the statistical  differences between a survey that includes  only those who respon...
Non–response error• Refusal: a person who is unwilling to  participate in a research project.• Self–selection bias: a bias...
Response bias• A bias that occurs when respondents tend to  answer questions with a certain slant that  consciously or unc...
Types of response bias• Acquiescence bias results because some  individuals tend to agree with all questions or  to concur...
Types of response bias• Interviewer bias occurs because the  presence of the interviewer influences  answers.• Auspices bi...
Administrative error• Data processing error: incorrect data entry,  computer programming, or other  procedural errors duri...
Classifying survey research              methods• Surveys may be classified based on the  method of communication, the deg...
Structure and disguised questions• A structured question imposes a limit on the  number of allowable responses.• An unstru...
Temporal classification• Cross–sectional study: various segments of a  population are sampled and data are  collected at a...
Temporal classification• Consumer panel is a longitudinal study of the  same sample of individuals or households to  recor...
Mail questionnaires• Self–administered questionnaire sent to  respondents through the mail.• Geographic flexibility• Relat...
Selecting the appropriate survey           research design• There is no best form of survey; each has  advantages and disa...
67
Pre–testing• Pre–testing involves a trial run with a group of  respondents to iron out fundamental  problems in the instru...
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  • An alternative Drop off surveys A representative of the researcher hand-delivers survey forms to respondents; the completed surveys are returned by mail or picked up by the representative   Advantages Availability of a person who can answer general questions screen potential respondents, and spur interest in completing the questionnaire May increase the response rate Disadvantages Fairly expensive in comparison to direct mail surveys
  • Advantages Fast Inexpensive   Disadvantages Lack of privacy Some respondents may not use this form of technology
  • Transcript of "Survey - How to"

    1. 1. Chapter 5Survey research 1
    2. 2. Learning Objectives• Identify the information required to be collected through a survey• Describe and justify the appropriate respondents for a survey• Summarise the various communication techniques, including their strengths and limitations• Explain the factors that will influence the selection of a survey method• Choose an appropriate survey method for a given situation• Outline the issues involved when planning surveys internationally
    3. 3. Survey Design
    4. 4. Survey Design• Survey: the overall planning, design and administration process involved in obtaining data using a questionnaire• Respondents are asked questions regarding their behaviour, intentions, attitudes, awareness, motivations, and demographics and lifestyle What is the difference between a survey and a questionnaire???
    5. 5. Nature of surveys• Survey: a method of collecting primary data in which information is gathered by communicating with a representative sample of people.• Sample survey: more formal term for a survey.• Respondent: person who verbally answers an interviewer’s questions or provides answers to written questions. 5
    6. 6. Survey objectives: type of information gathered• Attempt to describe what is happening or to learn the reasons for a particular marketing activity. – Identifying characteristics of target markets – Measuring consumer attitudes – Describing consumer purchasing patterns.• Most often associated with quantitative findings, but can also be qualitative. 6
    7. 7. Advantages of surveys• Quick• Inexpensive• Efficient• Accurate• Flexible. 7
    8. 8. Advantages of Surveys Group Statistics Std. Error Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Mean How much have you Male 236 1283.4237 3502.02542 227.96244 spent, in total, on• Standardisation Internet shopping over Female the past 12 months? 212 1002.7311 1342.04673 92.17215• Ease of administration• Ability to tap the ‘unseen’• Large sample• Low cost• Increases geographic flexibility• Suitable for tabulations and statistical analysis• Generalisability• Sensitivity to subgroup differences
    9. 9. Disadvantages of Surveys• Difficult developing surveys• Need to develop constructs, scale measurements, survey design• Respondents may be unable/unwilling to provide the desired information• Structured and fixed responses• Difficult to probe
    10. 10. Determine the Information Required• Begin with clear research objectives, information needed, hypotheses and scope of the research• Use exploratory research to gain insight and clarification• Experience with similar studies• Good questionnaire design
    11. 11. From Whom• Target population will influence several aspects of survey design including: – survey communication method – question content – administration issues• Need to consider: –Who they are? –Where they are located geographically? –Accessibility?
    12. 12. How do you determine how many people are interviewed? William Burlace, Director, Media Services Roy Morgan Research
    13. 13. Methods of Data Collection• Personal interviewing• Telephone interviewing• Mail surveys• On-line surveys• Fax surveys } self-completion• Combinations of survey methods
    14. 14. Personal interviews• Form of direct communication in which an interviewer asks respondents questions face– to–face.• Versatile and flexible. 14
    15. 15. The advantages of personal interviews • Opportunity for feedback • Probing complex answers – Interviewer asks the respondent for clarification of answers. • Length of interview controlled • Completeness of questionnaire – Item non–response is least likely to occur. • Props and visual aids • High participation. 15
    16. 16. Disadvantages of personal interviews• Interviewer influence – Different interviewer characteristics and techniques• Lack of anonymity of respondent – Respondent may be reluctant to provide confidential information• Cost. 16
    17. 17. Personal interviews: Door-to-Door Interviews• Interview conducted at the respondent’s homeAdvantages• When personal contact is essential• Conducive environment to questioning process• Ability to explain complicated tasks• In-depth and detailed interviews can take place
    18. 18. Personal interviews: Executive Interviews• Interviewing business people at their officesDisadvantages• Very expensive• Experienced interviewers required
    19. 19. Personal interviews: Shopping Centre InterceptAdvantages• Travel costs are eliminated• Interviewer can interact with respondentsDisadvantages• Non-representative sample• Uncomfortable environment for respondents
    20. 20. Personal interviews: Purchase Intercept technique• Intercept customers while in the shopping environmentAdvantages• Aids buyer recall• Interviewer can interact with respondentsDisadvantages• Access difficulties• Only purchasers are interviewed
    21. 21. Personal interviews: Computer Assisted• Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)• Direct entry of research information into a computerised database
    22. 22. Door–to–door interviews and shopping mall intercepts• Door–to–door interviews are conducted at respondents’ doorsteps. – An effort to increase the participation rate. – Call–backs are attempts to recontact individuals selected for a sample who were not available initially.• Mall intercept interviews are conduced in a shopping mall. – Lower costs but higher refusal rates. 22
    23. 23. Telephone interviews• Personal interview conducted by telephone.• Speedy data collection• Relatively inexpensive• Absence of face–to–face contact is more impersonal.• Cooperation• Representative samples• Lack of visual medium. 23
    24. 24. Telephone interviews• Central location: 1300 or 1800 lines to a central location• Computer–assisted: answers to telephone interviews entered directly into a computer.• Computerised voice–activated: done without human interviewers.• Random digit dialling: use of table of random numbers to contact respondents. 24
    25. 25. Telephone InterviewingStrengths• Relatively inexpensive• Yields a very high sample• QuickWeaknesses• Inability of respondents to see questions• Inability to observe respondents• Limitations on information quality and quantity• Sampling problems• People associate surveys with telemarketing
    26. 26. Telephone Interviewing cont.Traditional telephone interviews• Paper and pencil.Disadvantages• Difficult to measure quality control• High potential for errors• Difficult to determine time spent on surveys
    27. 27. Telephone Interviewing: Computer AssistedComputer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)• Computerised survey administered to respondents over the telephone
    28. 28. Telephone Interviewing: Computer Assisted cont.Advantages• Computer dials phone number• Computer skips questions Minimises• Can customise questions research errors• No editing required• Analysis can be done at any stage• Cost savings• Quality control• Time savings
    29. 29. Telephone Interviewing: Computer AutomatedComputer automated telephone systems (CATS)• Computer-synthesised voices are used to ask questions over the phone• Respondents select numbers on the telephone keypad to answer questions• Voice recognition is likely to be used in the future to record and count responses
    30. 30. Self Administered Surveys: Direct Mail• Survey is developed and mailed to pre- selected respondents who return the completed surveys by mail• Mail interview package consists of the outgoing envelope, cover letter, survey, return envelope
    31. 31. Self Administered Surveys: Direct Mail cont.Advantages• No interviewers to recruit, train, monitor and compensate• Inexpensive to implement• Can reach many peopleDisadvantages• Low response rate• Self-selection bias• Slow form of collection• Possible misunderstanding of skipped questions
    32. 32. Methods Used to Increase Response Rates• Preliminary notification• Foot-in-the-door• Personalisation• Anonymity• Response deadline• Appeals• Sponsorship• Incentives• Survey length• survey size, reproduction, and colour• Type of postage (outgoing)• Type of postage (return envelopes)• Follow-ups
    33. 33. Self Administered Surveys: Mail Panels• Large representative sample of households that have agreed to participate in periodic mail surveys, product tests and telephone survey
    34. 34. Self Administered Surveys: Mail Panels cont.Advantages• Panel can be tested prior to the survey to obtain a representative sample• Produces a higher response compared with direct mail• Allows for longitudinal researchDisadvantage• May not be a representative sample
    35. 35. Example: Roy Morgan Single Source• Roy Morgan research company surveys over 50, 000 Australians each year on a range of topics which forms their Single Source Data – Lifestyle and attitudes – Media consumption habits – Brand and product usage – Purchase intentions – Service provider preferences – Financial information – Recreation and leisure activities Source: www.roymorgan.com
    36. 36. Explain the methodological rigor behind the single source monitor? William Burlace, Director, Media Services Roy Morgan Research
    37. 37. Response rate• The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the number of eligible people who were asked to participate in the survey. 37
    38. 38. Increasing response rates for mail surveys• Stamped return envelope• Attractive questionnaires• Cover letter• Monetary incentives or premiums• Interesting questions• Follow–ups• Advance notification• Survey sponsorship — auspices bias. 38
    39. 39. Self–administered questionnaires that use other forms of distribution• In–flight and in–store• Drop–off method• Email surveys• Internet surveys – Speed and cost–effectiveness – Visual appeal and interactivity – Respondent participation and cooperation – Representative samples – Accurate real–time data capture – Personalised and flexible questioning. 39
    40. 40. Self Administered Surveys: Drop-off Survey• A representative of the researcher hand- delivers survey forms to respondents; the completed surveys are returned by mail or picked up by the representative
    41. 41. Self Administered Surveys: Drop-off Surveys cont.Advantages• Availability of a person who can answer general questions• Screen potential respondents• Spur respondents in completing the surveyDisadvantages• Fairly expensive in comparison to direct mail surveys
    42. 42. Computer Assisted Surveys: FaxAdvantages• Flexibility of mail• Speed of the telephone• Administration and clerical functions can also be reduced• Fax implies urgencyDisadvantages• Fax technology may not be used• Cost to respondents could reduce response rates• Technical problems• Lack of privacy may cause response problems• May lack clarity of image of a printed mail survey
    43. 43. Computer Assisted Surveys: E-Mail• A survey using plain text which is e-mailed for the respondent to read, complete and returnAdvantages• Fast• Inexpensive
    44. 44. Computer Assisted Surveys: On-line• Use HTML to write the survey.• Survey can be found on the web or emailed to a potential respondentAdvantages• Prepared with speed and accuracy of electronicsDisadvantages• Possible non-response bias• Respondents must seek the survey• May not be a representative sample
    45. 45. How have you changed the way you administer surveys at Colmar Brunton? Peter Kenny, Managing Director Colmar Brunton
    46. 46. Preparing your own on-line survey• A number of companies allow you to design your own survey – www.surveymonkey.com – www.zoomerang.com• Some research companies have their own panel whom they send surveys to if they meet the criteria specified by the researcher. – www.researchnow.com.au – http://au.acnielsen.com/industry/online.sh – www.theoru.com.au
    47. 47. A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods
    48. 48. Combining Methods• Several alternatives are available• Allows researcher to capitalise on strengths and minimise limitations of methods involved• Overall goal is to improved response rates
    49. 49. Factors Affecting Choice of Survey Method• Sampling• Type of population• Question form• Question content• Response rates• Costs• Available staff• Time
    50. 50. Length of Questionnaire• Influenced by: – information required – characteristics of respondents – communication method Example: Shopping centre intercepts are typically 5 minutes or less so pointless drafting lengthy survey
    51. 51. Errors in survey research 51
    52. 52. Random sampling error• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample. 52
    53. 53. Systematic error• Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research.• Sample bias exists when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter. 53
    54. 54. Respondent error• A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction. – Non–response error – Response bias. 54
    55. 55. Non–response error• Non–response error: the statistical differences between a survey that includes only those who responded and a perfect survey that would also include those who failed to respond.• Non–respondent: a person who is not contacted or who refuses to cooperate in the research.• No contact: a person who is not at home. 55
    56. 56. Non–response error• Refusal: a person who is unwilling to participate in a research project.• Self–selection bias: a bias that occurs because people who feel strongly about a subject are more likely to respond to survey questions than people who feel indifferent about it. – Over–represent extreme positions – Under–represent indifference. 56
    57. 57. Response bias• A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth.• Deliberate falsification: occasionally people deliberately give false answers.• Unconscious misrepresentation: response bias arising from question format or content, even when respondent is trying to be truthful. 57
    58. 58. Types of response bias• Acquiescence bias results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.• Extremity bias results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions. 58
    59. 59. Types of response bias• Interviewer bias occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.• Auspices bias is caused by the respondents being influenced by the organisation conducting the study.• Social desirability bias is caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role. 59
    60. 60. Administrative error• Data processing error: incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage.• Sample selection error: improper sample design or sampling procedure execution.• Interviewer error: field mistakes• Interviewer cheating: filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers. 60
    61. 61. Classifying survey research methods• Surveys may be classified based on the method of communication, the degrees of structure and disguise in the questionnaire, and the time frame in which the data are gathered. 61
    62. 62. Structure and disguised questions• A structured question imposes a limit on the number of allowable responses.• An unstructured question does not restrict the respondents’ answers.• An undisguised question is straightforward and assumes the respondent is willing to answer.• A disguised question assumes the purpose of the study must be hidden from the respondent. 62
    63. 63. Temporal classification• Cross–sectional study: various segments of a population are sampled and data are collected at a single moment in time.• Longitudinal study: respondents are surveyed at different times, thus allowing analysis of continuity and changes over time. – Tracking study uses successive samples to compare trends and identify changes. 63
    64. 64. Temporal classification• Consumer panel is a longitudinal study of the same sample of individuals or households to record their attitudes, behaviour, or purchasing habits over time. 64
    65. 65. Mail questionnaires• Self–administered questionnaire sent to respondents through the mail.• Geographic flexibility• Relatively inexpensive• More convenient for respondents• Anonymity of respondent• Absence of interviewer• Highly standardised questions• Time consuming. 65
    66. 66. Selecting the appropriate survey research design• There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages. – For example, a researcher who must ask highly confidential questions may use a mail survey, thus sacrificing speed of data collection to avoid interviewer bias.• Table 5.2 is a summary of the major advantages and disadvantages of typical survey methods. 66
    67. 67. 67
    68. 68. Pre–testing• Pre–testing involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions or design of a questionnaire.• Avoids problems of having respondents misunderstand a particular question, skip a series of questions or misinterpret instructions. 68
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