Market Segmentation

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  • EXAMPLE: COCA-COLA MASS MARKET to PRODUCT VARIETY to TARGET MARKETING : At one time CocaCola produced only one drink for whole market, hoping it would appeal to everyone. Mass marketing results in lowest costs and prices…creates largest potential market Later CocaCola produced several soft drinks packaged in different sizes and containers…designed to offer variety to buyers rather than to appeal to different market segments Consumers have different tastes that change over time Consumers seek variety and change Today CocaCola produces soft drinks for various segments Sugared-cola segment (Coca-Cola) Diet segment (Diet Coke) No-caffeine segment (Caffeine Free Diet Coke) Non-Cola Segment (Sprite and Lift)
  • Demographics. Business markets can be segmented by Industry segmentation focuses on which industries buy the product. Company size can be used. Geographic location may be used to group businesses by proximity. Operating Variables. Business markets can be segmented by technology (what customer technologies should we focus on?), user/nonuser status (heavy, medium, light), or customer capabilities (those needing many or few services). Purchasing Approaches. Five approaches are possible. Segmentation can be by purchasing function organisation (centralised or decentralised), power structure (selecting companies controlled by a functional speciality), the nature of existing relationships (current desirable customers or new desirable customers), general purchase policies (focus on companies that prefer some arrangements over others such as leasing, related support service contracts, sealed bids), or purchasing criteria (focus on non-compensatory criteria such as price, service, or quality). Situational Factors . Situational segmentation may be based upon urgency (such as quick delivery needs), specific application (specific uses for the product) or size of order (few large or many small accounts). Personal Characteristics. Personal comparisons can lead to segmentation by buyer-seller similarity (companies with similar personnel and values), attitudes toward risk (focus on risk-taking or risk-avoiding companies), or loyalty (focus on companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers.

Transcript

  • 1. MARKET SEGMENTATION, TARGETING AND POSITIONING LECTURE 4 : BHO1171 INTRODUCTION TO MARKETINGThis lecture will explain:• what constitutes a market• market aggregation / mass market concepts using examples• what market segmentation means and the reasons for segmenting markets• What criteria (bases) can be used for segmenting markets (main focus of lecture)• Bases for segmenting B2B markets• What criteria can be used to determine if the segmentation is effective• How to evaluate different segments – which segment to target?• Once a target segment is chosen, marketing program can be developed• Concept of positioning and why there is a need to position a product in the market• Selecting the right competitive advantage – what criteria can be used to select the right differences to promote BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 1 VU -
  • 2. What are Markets?• In Economics and Marketing - the term "market" denotes an aggregate of people who, as individuals or as organisations;• have needs for products in a product class;• have the ability, willingness and authority to purchase such products;• eg: Students are part of the market for textbooks, calculators, paper, etc. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 2 VU -
  • 3. TYPES OF MARKETS• Markets can be divided into two categories:• Consumer market - buy products for consumption - not for making profit.• Organisational or industrial market - purchase a specific kind of product for resale use in producing other products use in general daily operations.eg: producers, resellers, government and institutions BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 3 VU -
  • 4. REQUIREMENTS FOR A MARKETFor a group of people to be a market - it must meet the following four requirements:• must need or want a particular product• have the ability to purchase the product.• must be willing to use their buying power.• must have the authority to buy the specific products. eg: Under 18s not allowed to buy alcohol in most States. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 4 VU -
  • 5. Stages in Market Orientation Mass Mass Marketing Marketing Product-Variety Product-Variety Marketing Marketing Target Target Marketing Marketing BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 5 VU -
  • 6. HISTORICAL APPROACHES TO MARKETS• Mass Marketing: In mass marketing the seller mass produces, mass distributes, and mass promotes one product to all buyers.• Product-Variety Marketing: Here the seller produces two or more products that have different features, styles, quality, sizes, and so on.• Target Marketing: Here the seller identifies market segments, selects one or more of them, and develops products and marketing mixes tailored to each. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 6 VU -
  • 7. MASS MARKETING• Also known as mass marketing or undifferentiated marketing• A single marketing program is used to offer the same product to all consumers.• This approach will not satisfy the needs and wants of every buyer completely.• Used by marketers of standardised goods like sugar, salt, petrol, paint• This approach is used when consumers perceive little or no difference between the products of different firms - when competing products seem virtually the same. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 7 VU -
  • 8. MARKET AGGREGATION: THE STRATEGY FOR MASS MARKETING• a large number of people must have the same basic need or want.• a single marketing mix must satisfy various potential customers.• Consumers are expected to compromise by accepting a product that may not suit their needs perfectly.• Market is vulnerable to competitors.• Promotion and marketing activities create perception of uniqueness and superiority - product differentiation. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 8 VU -
  • 9. MARKET SEGMENTATION - STRATEGY OF SUBDIVIDING THE MARKET• Why segment markets? - because markets consist of buyers and buyers differ in one or more respects.• They differ in their: wants & resources geographic locations buying attitude & practices Any of these may be used to segment a market. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 9 VU -
  • 10. WHAT IS MARKET SEGMENTATION?• Divide a market into distinct groups of buyers (each with relatively similar product needs).• Segments are made up of groups of people with different needs, characteristics or behaviour• Each segment may require separate products or marketing mixes BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 10 - VU
  • 11. EXAMPLE: GMHSellers look for broad classes of buyers who differ in their product needs or buying responses• GMH has found that high and low-income groups differ in their car-buying needs and wants• Young consumers’ needs and wants differ from those of older consumers• Hence GMH has designed specific models for different income and age groups BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 11 - VU
  • 12. SEGMENTATION BENEFITS• Firms segment the market to better service customers.• Allows firms to compete more effectively.• With a segmented market firm can tailor a marketing mix to a well defined target market.• What marketers look for are distinctive groups of consumers within the total- segmentation allows them to meet needs more efficiently. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 12 - VU
  • 13. EFFECTIVE USE OF MARKET SEGMENTATION• can the market be identified and measured?• is the segment large enough to be profitable?• is the market reachable?• is the segment responsive?• the segment must be stable BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 13 - VU
  • 14. Bases for Segmenting Consumer MarketsC 3. BehaviouralH 1. DemographicARACTER 4. PsychographicI 2. GeographicSTICS BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 14 - VU
  • 15. Segmenting Bases• Refer Table 7.1 pp219• Geographic – region, city size, urban,rural,climate• Demographic – income,age, gender, family life cycle, – social class, education, occupation, ethnicity• Psychographic – personality, lifestyle, values• Behavioural – benefits desired, usage rate BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 15 - VU
  • 16. EXAMPLE: GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION• Dividing the market into different zones -• Regions, States, Cities• ICI’s fertiliser arm segments by geography - emphasising the right product in the right areas• Can localise products, advertising, promotion and sales efforts to fit needs of individual areas• People in different areas have different need and wants BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 16 - VU
  • 17. Segmenting by DemographicsExamples:• Cars designed to appeal to women – Holden Barina, Suzuki Jimmy(what about the ute!) – gender segments• CBA Visa card has ads in Cosmopolitan & CleoPepsi targets different demographic segments in different ways: (age-life cycle stage)• Ads to teens (dance-beat music, adventure, rapid scene movements)• Ads to seniors (softer and more sentimental – closing the generation gap by sharing a common soft drink - Pepsi BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 17 - VU
  • 18. Segmenting by Psychographics• Socioeconomic status has strong effect on preferences for cars, clothing,home furnishings, leisure, store choice• Lifestyle: frozen dinners, low fat yoghurts, Solo soft drink• Personality – creating products that correspond to consumer personalities – cosmetics, insurance, liquor, online share trades BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 18 - VU
  • 19. Segmenting by Behaviour• Occasions: Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, marketing of greeting cards, Kodak single use cameras• Benefit sought: eg tooth decay prevention, whiteness,tartar control, fluorigard BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 19 - VU
  • 20. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION BUSINESS MARKETS• Demographics• Operating Variables• Purchasing Approaches• Situational Factors• Personal FactorsBHO1171 -4- School of HTM 20 - VU
  • 21. MARKET TARGETING• Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 21 - VU
  • 22. Market Targeting: Evaluating Market Segments Size and Size and Structural Structural Growth Growth Attractiveness Attractiveness Company Company Objectives and Objectives and Resources Resources BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 22 - VU
  • 23. Requirements for Effective Segmentation Measurable Requirements Actionable for Accessible Effective Segmentation Substantial BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 23 - VU
  • 24. Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy Competitors’ Company Strategies Resources Factors Factors Affecting Affecting Market Strategy Strategy ProductVariability Decisions Decisions Variability Stage in Life Cycle BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 24 - VU
  • 25. Market Coverage StrategyRemember that a market may consist of a number of segments: Do we need to cover all segments?The market coverage strategy that works best will depend on:• the company’s resources• how different the product is• the competitors’ marketing strategies• the nature of the market BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 25 - VU
  • 26. STRATEGIC POSITIONINGEXAMPLE: Shampoo Market• Shampoo market is highly fragmented - overflowing with brands that promise: - body and control - renewed life for dull hair - elimination of split ends - avoidance of dandruff.• Effective marketers understand the value of establishing a solid position in the minds of consumers. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 26 - VU
  • 27. Product Positioning Strategies Product Product Product Product Class Class Attributes Attributes Away from Away from Benefits BenefitsCompetitorsCompetitors HH GG C Offered Offered C AA Against a Usage D Against a Usage D EE BBCompetitorCompetitor FF Occasions Occasions Users Users BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 27 - VU
  • 28. PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFYING AN APPROPRIATE POSITION• (1) Determine the relevant product / market• (2) Identify competitors.• (3) Determine how consumers evaluate options• (4) Learn how competitors are perceived• (5) Identify gaps in positions held• (6) Plan and carry out the positioning strategy• (7) Monitor the position BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 28 - VU
  • 29. DEFINING A POSITIONING STRATEGY• Identifying a Positional Direction• Identifying Possible Competitive Advantage• Selecting the Right Competitive Advantage• Differences to Promote• Communicating the Chosen Position BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 29 - VU
  • 30. IDENTIFYING A POSITIONAL DIRECTION• See Pages 234-235 Kotler• Brand position of department stores• Brand repositioning strategies BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 30 - VU
  • 31. SOURCES OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES• Product Differentiation can be based upon features or performance.• Services Differentiation may come from delivery, installation, repair, or training advantages.• Personnel Differentiation is derived from a superior work force.• Image Differentiation can be generated from effective use of symbols in association with product consumption. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 31 - VU
  • 32. Promoting Differences Important ImportantProfitable Criteria DistinctiveProfitable for Distinctive Determining Which DifferencesAffordableAffordable to Superior Superior Promote Commun- Commun- Preemptive Preemptive icable icable BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 32 - VU
  • 33. EXAMPLE: FORD MOTOR COMPANY• A company that has evolved from a mass-marketer to a market-targeter.• Ford originally made one car for the entire — didn’t even have a choice of colours.• “You can have any colour car you want so long as it’s black” Henry Ford• Over time, Ford added other cars to its line (product- variety marketing), and eventually developed cars for nearly every market segment (target marketing). BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 33 - VU
  • 34. EXAMPLE: PROCTER & GAMBLE• Most companies that have been around for a long time have shown a similar evolution.• Procter & Gamble, had been in existence more than 80 years when it introduced Ivory Flakes to supplement Ivory Soap (product variety)• Was almost 90 years old when it first developed a product (Camay) to compete with an existing P&G product (Ivory) (“150 Years of P&G”, Advertising Age, August 20, 1987, p. 10).• Today, P&G is one of the pre-eminent market targeting companies in the world. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 34 - VU
  • 35. EXAMPLE: SEGMENTS IN THE BEER MARKET• The beer market is segmented in many ways:• region (through regional brewers and brands),• income and social class (premium beers and imports versus budget beers),• life style (“The original party animal”),• purchase occasion (“Here’s to good friends”), and• usage rate (“The one beer to have when you’re having more than one”). BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 35 - VU
  • 36. EXAMPLE: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION IN INDUSTRIAL MARKETS• Service, selection, and reliability can all be used in benefit segmentation of industrial markets.• Suppliers who want to emphasise these characteristics must identify firms that need these benefits.• By better satisfying these firms’ needs, the supplier is able to charge higher prices than competitors who offer fewer services or less selection.• Other suppliers can find market segments that do not need these benefits, and sacrifice service, selection, and reliability to reduce costs and be able to sell at a lower price. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 36 - VU
  • 37. Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning (fig 7.1) BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 37 - VU
  • 38. Segmenting Business Markets Personal Demographics Characteristics Bases Bases for Segmenting for Segmenting Situational Business Business Operating Factors Markets Markets Variables Purchasing Approaches BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 38 - VU
  • 39. BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 39 - VU
  • 40. Selecting Market Segments Company Company Marketing Marketing Market Mix Market Mix A. Undifferentiated MarketingCompany Mix 1Company Mix 1 Segment 1 Segment 1Company Mix 2Company Mix 2 Segment 2 Segment 2Company Mix 3Company Mix 3 Segment 3 Segment 3 B. Differentiated Marketing Company Segment 1 Segment 1 Company Marketing Marketing Segment 2 Segment 2 Mix Mix Segment 3 Segment 3 C. Concentrated Marketing BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 40 - VU
  • 41. Identifying a Positional Direction (fig 7.4) BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 41 - VU
  • 42. Identifying a Re-Positioning Direction (fig 7.5) BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 42 - VU
  • 43. Identifying Possible Competitive Advantage Product Product Service Service Areas for Competitive Areas for Competitive Differentiation Differentiation Personnel Personnel Image Image BHO1171 -4- School of HTM 43 - VU