Preterite imperfect

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Preterite imperfect

  1. 1. Past Tense Preterite Imperfect Preterite vs Imperfect
  2. 2. Preterite conjugation <ul><li>Regular Verb Endings: </li></ul><ul><li> ___-ar__ _ ____-er/-ir___ </li></ul><ul><li>-é -amos -í -imos </li></ul><ul><li>-aste -asteis -iste -isteis </li></ul><ul><li>-ó -aron -ió -ieron </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preterite conjugation Irregular Yo <ul><li>Yo spelling changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- car -qué </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-gar -gu é </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-zar -cé </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Otros verbos –car <ul><li>acercarse (to come near, approach) buscar (to look for) </li></ul><ul><li>arrancar (to pull out, start (engine) chocar (to crash) </li></ul><ul><li>colocar (to place, put) complicar (to complicate) </li></ul><ul><li>comunicar (to communicate) criticar (to criticize, critique) </li></ul><ul><li>dedicar (to dedicate, devote) educar (to educate) </li></ul><ul><li>embarcarse (to board, go on board) marcar (to dial, mark) </li></ul><ul><li>equivocarse (to make a mistake) masticar (to chew) </li></ul><ul><li>fabricar (to make, manufacture) pescar (to fish) </li></ul><ul><li>justificar (to justify, give a reason for) platicar (to chat) </li></ul><ul><li>practicar (to practice) secar (to dry) </li></ul><ul><li>explicar (to explain) </li></ul><ul><li>sacar (to take out, remove, receive [grades]) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Otros verbos –gar <ul><li>agregar (to add) ahogarse (to drown) </li></ul><ul><li>apagar (to turn off) cargar (to carry, load) </li></ul><ul><li>castigar (to punish) despegar (to take off, peel off) </li></ul><ul><li>pagar (to pay) pegar (to hit, glue) </li></ul><ul><li>tragar (to swallow) llegar (to arrive) </li></ul><ul><li>encargar (to put in charge, order [goods]) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changers </li></ul><ul><li>colgar (ue) (to hang up) fregar (ie) to wash dishes, scrub) </li></ul><ul><li>negar (ie) (to deny) regar (ie) (to water plants) </li></ul><ul><li>jugar (ue) (to play a game, sports) </li></ul><ul><li>rogar (ue) (to beg) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Otros verbos –zar <ul><li>almorzar (to eat lunch) abrazar (to hug) </li></ul><ul><li>aterrizar (to land) cruzar (to cross) </li></ul><ul><li>comenzar (ie) (to begin) empezar (ie) (to begin) </li></ul><ul><li>especializarse en (to specialize in, major in) </li></ul><ul><li>garantizar (to guarantee) gozar (to enjoy) </li></ul><ul><li>lanzar (to throw) rezar (to pray) </li></ul><ul><li>realizar (to carry out, attain, realize) </li></ul><ul><li>tranquilizar (to calm down) </li></ul><ul><li>tropezar (ie) (to trip, stumble) utilizar (to use, make use of) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Preterite Irregular C onjugation -uve group <ul><li>andar- to walk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tener- to have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>estar- to be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Preterite Irregular C onjugation I group <ul><li>hacer- to do, to make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hice, hiciste, hizo , hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>venir- to come </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>querer- to want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Preterite Irregular C onjugation J group <ul><li>traer- to bring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>decir- to have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>traducir- to translate </li></ul><ul><li>(all -ucir verbs like conducir to drive) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traduje, tradujiste, tradujo, tradujimos, tradujisteis, tradujeron </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Preterite Irregular C onjugation supe, pu-, pu- group <ul><li>saber- to know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>poner- to put </li></ul><ul><ul><li>puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>poder- to be able </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Preterite Irregular C onjugation Other Verbs <ul><li>caber- to fit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>satisfacer- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfice, satisficiste, satisfizo , satisficimos, satisficisteis, satisficieron </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Preterite Irregular C onjugation <ul><li>Ser- to be and ir- to go. </li></ul><ul><li>(You know which verb it is by using context of the sentence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fui fuimos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fuiste fuisteis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fue fueron </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dar and Ver <ul><li>dar- to give ver- to see </li></ul><ul><li>di dimos vi vimos </li></ul><ul><li>diste disteis viste visteis </li></ul><ul><li>dio dieron vio vieron </li></ul>
  14. 14. Preterite Stem Changers <ul><li>Stem changes occur in –ir verbs only. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changes occur in él /ella/Ud . and ellos/ellas/Uds only. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e i </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o u </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Preterite Stem Changers <ul><li>sentir (ei, i) (to feel) advertir (ei, i) (to warn) </li></ul><ul><li>convertir (ei, i) (to convert) convertirse (ei, i) (to become) </li></ul><ul><li>divertir (ei, i) (to amuse) mentir (ei, i) (to lie) </li></ul><ul><li>divertirse (ei, i) (to amuse oneself) preferir (ei, i) (to prefer) </li></ul><ul><li>sentir (ei, i) (to feel, be sorry) sentirse (ei, i) (to feel) </li></ul><ul><li>dormir (ue, u) (to sleep) morir (ue, u) (to die) </li></ul><ul><li>dormirse (ue, u) (to fall asleep) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Preterite Stem Changers <ul><li>servir (i, i) (to serve) medir (i, i) (to measure) </li></ul><ul><li>repetir (i, i) (to repeat) seguir (i, i) (to continue) </li></ul><ul><li>despedir (i, i) (to fire someone) vestir (i, i) (to dress) </li></ul><ul><li>pedir (i, i) (to ask for, request) re ír (i, i) (to smile) </li></ul><ul><li>conseguir (i, i) (to get, obtain) sonreír (i, i) (to laugh) </li></ul><ul><li>vestirse (i, i) (to dress oneself) freír (i, i) (to fry) </li></ul><ul><li>despedirse de (i, i) (to say good-bye to) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Preterite conjugation i to y change (not –uir) <ul><li>Verbs that end in –er or –ir whose stem ends in a vowel, change i to y in the 3 rd person forms, él /ella/Ud . and ellos/ellas/Uds only. </li></ul><ul><li>leer </li></ul><ul><li>le í le ímos </li></ul><ul><li>le íste le istéis </li></ul><ul><li>le yó le yeron </li></ul><ul><li>caerse (to fall down), creer (to believe), oír (to hear), poseer (to posess) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Preterite conjugation -uir verbs (not –guir verbs) <ul><li>Verbs ending in –uir also change i to y. </li></ul><ul><li>(Note: there are no accents on t ú, nosotros, y vosotros) </li></ul><ul><li> concluir- (to conclude) </li></ul><ul><li>conclu í conclu imos </li></ul><ul><li>conclu iste conclu isteis </li></ul><ul><li>conclu yó conclu yeron </li></ul>
  19. 19. Preterite conjugation Other –uir Verbs <ul><li>atribuir (to attribute) </li></ul><ul><li>construir (to build) </li></ul><ul><li>contribuir (to contribute) </li></ul><ul><li>distribuir (to distribute) </li></ul><ul><li>huir (to flee) </li></ul><ul><li>incluir (to include) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Translation <ul><li>The English Translation for the preterite is: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Yo hablé- I spoke </li></ul>
  21. 21. Preterite Trigger Words: <ul><li>ayer anteayer </li></ul><ul><li>una vez luego </li></ul><ul><li>entonces de repente </li></ul><ul><li>cuando anoche </li></ul><ul><li>hace # años que ... </li></ul><ul><li>la semana pasada </li></ul><ul><li>el mes/año pasado </li></ul>
  22. 22. Preterite Uses: <ul><li>Specific Action </li></ul><ul><li>Happened Once </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Point in Time </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (AKA telling a story) </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting Action </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning or End of an action in past </li></ul>
  23. 23. Imperfect Regular Verb Endings: <ul><li>__-ar__ - er/-ir_ _ </li></ul><ul><li>-aba -ábamos -ía -íamos </li></ul><ul><li>-abas -abais -ías -íais </li></ul><ul><li>-aba -aban -ía -ían </li></ul>
  24. 24. Imperfect 3 irregular verbs: <ul><li>__ir__ __ser__ __ ver__ </li></ul><ul><li>iba íbamos era éramos veía veíamos </li></ul><ul><li>ibas ibais eras erais veías veíais </li></ul><ul><li>iba iban era eran veía veían </li></ul>
  25. 25. Imperfect Translation <ul><li>The English Translation for the imperfect is: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I used to speak </li></ul><ul><li>Yo hablaba- I was speaking </li></ul><ul><li>I would speak </li></ul><ul><li>I spoke </li></ul>
  26. 26. Imperfect Trigger Words: <ul><li>algunas veces generalmente </li></ul><ul><li>muchas veces todos los días </li></ul><ul><li>a menudo siempre </li></ul><ul><li>frecuentemente a veces </li></ul><ul><li>mientras de vez en cuando </li></ul><ul><li>cada (día, año, etc.) los lunes/los martes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Imperfect Uses: <ul><li>Repeated Action </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Action </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual Actions (aka “Used to”) </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State </li></ul><ul><li>Background Info </li></ul><ul><li>Day/Date/Weather/Age </li></ul><ul><li>2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time </li></ul><ul><li>An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Comparing Usage <ul><ul><ul><li>Preterite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific Action </li></ul><ul><li>Happened Once </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Point in Time </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Narration (AKA telling a story) </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting Action </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning or End of an action in past </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated Action </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Action </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual Actions (aka “Used to”) </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State </li></ul><ul><li>Background Info </li></ul><ul><li>Day/Date/Weather/Age </li></ul><ul><li>2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time </li></ul><ul><li>An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning <ul><li>Verb Preterite Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Conocer Conocí- I met Conocía- I knew </li></ul><ul><li>(to know a person or place) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>saber Supe- I found out Sabía- I knew </li></ul><ul><li>(to know a fact or </li></ul><ul><li>how to do something) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>pensar Pensé- It dawned on me Pensaba- I thought </li></ul><ul><li>(to think) I realized </li></ul><ul><li>poder Pude- I managed Podía- I could </li></ul><ul><li>(to be able, can) I was able </li></ul>
  30. 30. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning <ul><li>Verb Preterite Imperfect   </li></ul><ul><li>no poder No pude- I couldn´t (failed to) No podía- I couldn´t </li></ul><ul><li>(to not be able) (a specific effort and (No reference to specific </li></ul><ul><li> failure implied) effort or failure) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>querer Quise- I tried Quería- I wanted </li></ul><ul><li>(to want) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>no querer No quise- I refused No quería- I didn´t </li></ul><ul><li>(to not want) want to </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>tener Tuve- I got Tenía- I had </li></ul><ul><li>(to have) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning <ul><li>Verb Preterite Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>tener que Tuve que...- I had to... Tenía que...- I was </li></ul><ul><li>(to have to...) supposed to... </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>costar Costó- It cost Costaba- It cost </li></ul><ul><li>(to cost) (and I bought it (implies that I didn´t buy it) </li></ul>

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