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Preterite imperfect

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  • 1. Past Tense Preterite Imperfect Preterite vs Imperfect
  • 2. Preterite conjugation
    • Regular Verb Endings:
    • ___-ar__ _ ____-er/-ir___
    • -é -amos -í -imos
    • -aste -asteis -iste -isteis
    • -ó -aron -ió -ieron
  • 3. Preterite conjugation Irregular Yo
    • Yo spelling changes:
        • - car -qué
        • -gar -gu é
        • -zar -cé
  • 4. Otros verbos –car
    • acercarse (to come near, approach) buscar (to look for)
    • arrancar (to pull out, start (engine) chocar (to crash)
    • colocar (to place, put) complicar (to complicate)
    • comunicar (to communicate) criticar (to criticize, critique)
    • dedicar (to dedicate, devote) educar (to educate)
    • embarcarse (to board, go on board) marcar (to dial, mark)
    • equivocarse (to make a mistake) masticar (to chew)
    • fabricar (to make, manufacture) pescar (to fish)
    • justificar (to justify, give a reason for) platicar (to chat)
    • practicar (to practice) secar (to dry)
    • explicar (to explain)
    • sacar (to take out, remove, receive [grades])
  • 5. Otros verbos –gar
    • agregar (to add) ahogarse (to drown)
    • apagar (to turn off) cargar (to carry, load)
    • castigar (to punish) despegar (to take off, peel off)
    • pagar (to pay) pegar (to hit, glue)
    • tragar (to swallow) llegar (to arrive)
    • encargar (to put in charge, order [goods])
    • Stem changers
    • colgar (ue) (to hang up) fregar (ie) to wash dishes, scrub)
    • negar (ie) (to deny) regar (ie) (to water plants)
    • jugar (ue) (to play a game, sports)
    • rogar (ue) (to beg)
  • 6. Otros verbos –zar
    • almorzar (to eat lunch) abrazar (to hug)
    • aterrizar (to land) cruzar (to cross)
    • comenzar (ie) (to begin) empezar (ie) (to begin)
    • especializarse en (to specialize in, major in)
    • garantizar (to guarantee) gozar (to enjoy)
    • lanzar (to throw) rezar (to pray)
    • realizar (to carry out, attain, realize)
    • tranquilizar (to calm down)
    • tropezar (ie) (to trip, stumble) utilizar (to use, make use of)
  • 7. Preterite Irregular C onjugation -uve group
    • andar- to walk
      • anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron
    • tener- to have
      • tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron
    • estar- to be
      • estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron
  • 8. Preterite Irregular C onjugation I group
    • hacer- to do, to make
      • hice, hiciste, hizo , hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron
    • venir- to come
      • vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron
    • querer- to want
      • quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron
  • 9. Preterite Irregular C onjugation J group
    • traer- to bring
      • traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron
    • decir- to have
      • dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron
    • traducir- to translate
    • (all -ucir verbs like conducir to drive)
      • traduje, tradujiste, tradujo, tradujimos, tradujisteis, tradujeron
  • 10. Preterite Irregular C onjugation supe, pu-, pu- group
    • saber- to know
      • supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron
    • poner- to put
      • puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron
    • poder- to be able
      • pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron
  • 11. Preterite Irregular C onjugation Other Verbs
    • caber- to fit
      • cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron
    • satisfacer-
      • satisfice, satisficiste, satisfizo , satisficimos, satisficisteis, satisficieron
  • 12. Preterite Irregular C onjugation
    • Ser- to be and ir- to go.
    • (You know which verb it is by using context of the sentence)
      • fui fuimos
      • fuiste fuisteis
      • fue fueron
  • 13. Dar and Ver
    • dar- to give ver- to see
    • di dimos vi vimos
    • diste disteis viste visteis
    • dio dieron vio vieron
  • 14. Preterite Stem Changers
    • Stem changes occur in –ir verbs only.
    • Stem changes occur in él /ella/Ud . and ellos/ellas/Uds only.
    • Stem changes are:
      • e i
      • o u
  • 15. Preterite Stem Changers
    • sentir (ei, i) (to feel) advertir (ei, i) (to warn)
    • convertir (ei, i) (to convert) convertirse (ei, i) (to become)
    • divertir (ei, i) (to amuse) mentir (ei, i) (to lie)
    • divertirse (ei, i) (to amuse oneself) preferir (ei, i) (to prefer)
    • sentir (ei, i) (to feel, be sorry) sentirse (ei, i) (to feel)
    • dormir (ue, u) (to sleep) morir (ue, u) (to die)
    • dormirse (ue, u) (to fall asleep)
  • 16. Preterite Stem Changers
    • servir (i, i) (to serve) medir (i, i) (to measure)
    • repetir (i, i) (to repeat) seguir (i, i) (to continue)
    • despedir (i, i) (to fire someone) vestir (i, i) (to dress)
    • pedir (i, i) (to ask for, request) re ír (i, i) (to smile)
    • conseguir (i, i) (to get, obtain) sonreír (i, i) (to laugh)
    • vestirse (i, i) (to dress oneself) freír (i, i) (to fry)
    • despedirse de (i, i) (to say good-bye to)
  • 17. Preterite conjugation i to y change (not –uir)
    • Verbs that end in –er or –ir whose stem ends in a vowel, change i to y in the 3 rd person forms, él /ella/Ud . and ellos/ellas/Uds only.
    • leer
    • le í le ímos
    • le íste le istéis
    • le yó le yeron
    • caerse (to fall down), creer (to believe), oír (to hear), poseer (to posess)
  • 18. Preterite conjugation -uir verbs (not –guir verbs)
    • Verbs ending in –uir also change i to y.
    • (Note: there are no accents on t ú, nosotros, y vosotros)
    • concluir- (to conclude)
    • conclu í conclu imos
    • conclu iste conclu isteis
    • conclu yó conclu yeron
  • 19. Preterite conjugation Other –uir Verbs
    • atribuir (to attribute)
    • construir (to build)
    • contribuir (to contribute)
    • distribuir (to distribute)
    • huir (to flee)
    • incluir (to include)
  • 20. Translation
    • The English Translation for the preterite is:
    •  
    • Yo hablé- I spoke
  • 21. Preterite Trigger Words:
    • ayer anteayer
    • una vez luego
    • entonces de repente
    • cuando anoche
    • hace # años que ...
    • la semana pasada
    • el mes/año pasado
  • 22. Preterite Uses:
    • Specific Action
    • Happened Once
    • Specific Point in Time
    • Sequential Actions
    • Narration (AKA telling a story)
    • Interrupting Action
    • Beginning or End of an action in past
  • 23. Imperfect Regular Verb Endings:
    • __-ar__ - er/-ir_ _
    • -aba -ábamos -ía -íamos
    • -abas -abais -ías -íais
    • -aba -aban -ía -ían
  • 24. Imperfect 3 irregular verbs:
    • __ir__ __ser__ __ ver__
    • iba íbamos era éramos veía veíamos
    • ibas ibais eras erais veías veíais
    • iba iban era eran veía veían
  • 25. Imperfect Translation
    • The English Translation for the imperfect is:
    •  
    • I used to speak
    • Yo hablaba- I was speaking
    • I would speak
    • I spoke
  • 26. Imperfect Trigger Words:
    • algunas veces generalmente
    • muchas veces todos los días
    • a menudo siempre
    • frecuentemente a veces
    • mientras de vez en cuando
    • cada (día, año, etc.) los lunes/los martes
  • 27. Imperfect Uses:
    • Repeated Action
    • Continuous Action
    • Habitual Actions (aka “Used to”)
    • Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State
    • Background Info
    • Day/Date/Weather/Age
    • 2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time
    • An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite)
  • 28. Comparing Usage
        • Preterite
    • Specific Action
    • Happened Once
    • Specific Point in Time
    • Sequential Actions
    • Narration (AKA telling a story)
    • Interrupting Action
    • Beginning or End of an action in past
    • Imperfect
    • Repeated Action
    • Continuous Action
    • Habitual Actions (aka “Used to”)
    • Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State
    • Background Info
    • Day/Date/Weather/Age
    • 2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time
    • An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite)
  • 29. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning
    • Verb Preterite Imperfect
    •  
    • Conocer Conocí- I met Conocía- I knew
    • (to know a person or place)
    •  
    • saber Supe- I found out Sabía- I knew
    • (to know a fact or
    • how to do something)
    •  
    • pensar Pensé- It dawned on me Pensaba- I thought
    • (to think) I realized
    • poder Pude- I managed Podía- I could
    • (to be able, can) I was able
  • 30. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning
    • Verb Preterite Imperfect  
    • no poder No pude- I couldn´t (failed to) No podía- I couldn´t
    • (to not be able) (a specific effort and (No reference to specific
    • failure implied) effort or failure)
    •  
    • querer Quise- I tried Quería- I wanted
    • (to want)
    •  
    • no querer No quise- I refused No quería- I didn´t
    • (to not want) want to
    •  
    • tener Tuve- I got Tenía- I had
    • (to have)
  • 31. Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning
    • Verb Preterite Imperfect
    • tener que Tuve que...- I had to... Tenía que...- I was
    • (to have to...) supposed to...
    •  
    • costar Costó- It cost Costaba- It cost
    • (to cost) (and I bought it (implies that I didn´t buy it)