Present subjunctive

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Present subjunctive

  1. 1. Present Subjunctive
  2. 2. Conjugating Present Subjunctive - Regular Verbs <ul><li>Conjugate verb in the yo present tense. pongo hablo </li></ul><ul><li>Chop off the –o. pong- habl- </li></ul><ul><li>Add opposite endings. </li></ul><ul><li>-ar -er/-ir </li></ul><ul><li>-e -emos -a -amos </li></ul><ul><li>-es -éis -as -áis </li></ul><ul><li>-e -en -a -an </li></ul><ul><li> no hablen no ponga </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conjugating Present Subjunctive - Irregular Verbs <ul><li>Irregular Subjunctive Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>ir ser saber </li></ul><ul><li>vaya vayamos sea seamo sepa sepamos </li></ul><ul><li>vayas vayáis seas seáis sepas sepáis </li></ul><ul><li>vaya vayan sea sean sepa sepan </li></ul><ul><li>dar estar haber </li></ul><ul><li>D é demos esté estémos haya hayamos </li></ul><ul><li>des deis estés estéis hayas hayáis </li></ul><ul><li>D é den estés estén haya hayan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conjugating Present Subjunctive - Stem Changes <ul><li>Stem changes in –ar and –er verbs is the same as present indicative. </li></ul><ul><li>pensar- to think </li></ul><ul><li>piense pensemos </li></ul><ul><li>pienses penséis </li></ul><ul><li>piense piensen </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conjugating Present Subjunctive - Stem Changes <ul><li>Stem changes in –ir verbs is the same as present indicative, but also stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms o u and e i. </li></ul><ul><li>dormir- to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>duerma durmamos </li></ul><ul><li>duermas durmáis </li></ul><ul><li>duerma duerman </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conjugating Present Subjunctive - Spelling Changes <ul><li>Verbs that end in change to </li></ul><ul><li>– car -que </li></ul><ul><li>– gar -gue </li></ul><ul><li>– zar -ce </li></ul>
  7. 7. Present Subjunctive- Volition <ul><li>Subjunctive occurs most frequently when you have: </li></ul><ul><li>an independent clause + que + dependent clause </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>a subject change. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Present Subjunctive- Volition <ul><li>If there is no subject change, use the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>¿Quieres visitar Madrid? </li></ul><ul><li>Sí, espero ir este año. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trigger Words- Volition <ul><li>aconsejar que advise </li></ul><ul><li>desear que desire </li></ul><ul><li>exigir que demand /require </li></ul><ul><li>insistir que insist </li></ul><ul><li>ojalá que I hope </li></ul><ul><li>preferir que prefer </li></ul><ul><li>recomendar que recommend </li></ul>
  10. 10. Trigger Words- Volition <ul><li>suplicar que beg/plead </li></ul><ul><li>decir que tell </li></ul><ul><li>escribir que write </li></ul><ul><li>hacer que make </li></ul><ul><li>mandar que send </li></ul><ul><li>pedir que ask </li></ul><ul><li>prohibir que prohibit </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trigger Words- Volition <ul><li>rogar que beg </li></ul><ul><li>dejar que let </li></ul><ul><li>esperar que hope </li></ul><ul><li>impedir que prevent </li></ul><ul><li>obligar a que oblige </li></ul><ul><li>permitir que permit/allow </li></ul><ul><li>querer que want </li></ul><ul><li>sugerir que suggest </li></ul>
  12. 12. Present Subjunctive- Volition <ul><li>Decir and escribir require the subjunctive when used to express a command. </li></ul><ul><li>Ojal á is always followed by the subjunctive. </li></ul><ul><li>When used to express an indirect command, the verbs aconsejar, dejar, hacer, mandar, obligar, permitir, and prohibir can be followed by either an infinitive or que and the subjunctive. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Present Subjunctive <ul><li>Impersonal expressions that trigger subjunctive: </li></ul><ul><li>es mejor que It’s better that </li></ul><ul><li>es necesario que It’s necessary that </li></ul><ul><li>es imprescindible que It’s essential that </li></ul><ul><li>importa que It’s important that </li></ul><ul><li>es probable que It’s probable that </li></ul>
  14. 14. Present Subjunctive <ul><li>es imposible que It’s impossible that </li></ul><ul><li>conviene que It’s convenient /proper </li></ul><ul><li>es menester que It’s necessary that </li></ul><ul><li>es preciso que It ’s necessary that </li></ul><ul><li>es importante que It’s important that </li></ul><ul><li>más vale que It’s better that </li></ul><ul><li>es posible que It’s possible that </li></ul>
  15. 15. Present Subjunctive <ul><li>es bueno que It’s good that </li></ul><ul><li>es malo que It’s bad that </li></ul><ul><li>es l á stima que It’s a shame that </li></ul><ul><li>es raro que It’s rare that </li></ul><ul><li>es f ácil que It’s easy that </li></ul><ul><li>es difícil que It’s difficult/ unlikely that </li></ul>
  16. 16. Present Subjunctive: Sequencing of Tenses <ul><li>Main clause (indicative) Dependent clause (subjunctive) </li></ul><ul><li>present </li></ul><ul><li>present perfect present </li></ul><ul><li>future present perfect </li></ul><ul><li>command </li></ul>
  17. 17. Present Subjunctive: Sequencing of Tenses <ul><li>The present subjunctive is used to express what is happening or will happen in constructions that require the subjunctive. </li></ul><ul><li>The present perfect subjunctive is used to express what has happened or will have happened in constructions that require the subjunctive. </li></ul>

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