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Identity and Leadership among New
Zealand Chinese Youth:
The New Zealand Chinese Association
and its Youth Leadership Conf...
Youth Voices, Youth Choices:
CACR FRST BIS Portfolio
• “By 2015 the voices of youth from diverse ethnic, cultural
and reli...
New Zealand Chinese
Demographics
• Chinese as the Johnny-come-lately to NZ?
• In terms of overall demographics, yes:
– 198...
The Multi-generational Kiwi
Chinese (www.nzchinese.org.nz)
• The first wave of Chinese arrived in NZ in the
1860s as part ...
Chinese Subject to Egregious Discrimination
and Stereotyping in the early 20th
century
The issue of immigration has
regularly been contentious
Historical Legacy or Present Peril?
• Recently the Race Relations Conciliator Joris de
Bres highlighted that discriminatio...
Creating Value from Historical Injustice
• An example of the activities of the NZCA is the
outcomes of the Poll Tax initia...
Galvanising the NZCA
• This had the effect of galvanising the
NZCA to become much more proactive in
presenting themselves ...
NZCA Leadership Development
Conference
• Originally conceived as a Summer Camp for NZ Chinese youth
in 2007, it morphed in...
Action Research- Research with the
Community as an Equal Partner
• Dr James Liu’s portion of the YVYC project
was to docum...
A B C D
D E F G
A B C D
D E F G
Dating Preferences at UCLA
(Liu, Campbell & Condie, 1995)
The NZCA LDC Identity and
Leadership Interviews
• Dr Liu has interviewed a wide spectrum of
people involved in the NZCA LD...
Leadership and Identity
in Kiwi Chinese
Major Themes - Identity
Sense / feeling / intuition of
what it is to be a
Kiwi Chinese
Most comfortable in the
company of ...
Major Themes - Identity
“I wouldn’t know what it would be
like to be any different, you know?”
“The fact that we are all C...
Major Themes - Identity
“I wouldn’t know what it would be
like to be any different, you know?”
“I get along with Chinese b...
Major Themes - Identity
“I wouldn’t know what it would be
like to be any different, you know?”
“I get along with Chinese b...
“I guess I thought I’ve been so
comfortable with identifying
myself as a Chinese New
Zealander, but never really
thought o...
“I guess I thought I’ve been so
comfortable with identifying
myself as a Chinese New
Zealander, but never really
thought o...
“I guess I thought I’ve been so
comfortable with identifying
myself as a Chinese New
Zealander, but never really
thought o...
Major Themes - Leadership
Reluctance articulating
differences between
NZ Chinese and ‘Kiwi’
leadership
Non culture-specifi...
Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just,
um, depends on what your crowd is.
Major Themes - Leadership
“I think if you achiev...
“Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just,
um, depends on what your crowd is.”
Major Themes - Leadership
“Track record. I thi...
“Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just,
um, depends on what your crowd is.”
Major Themes - Leadership
“Track record. I thi...
Major Themes - Leadership
“Um … kinda find it quite
hard to define.”
“Leadership to me is influence,
it's whether or not y...
Major Themes - Leadership
“Um … kinda find it quite
hard to define.”
“Leadership to me is influence,
it's whether or not y...
Major Themes - Bridging
“I want to proactively to do something
and so that's why I've tried to be the
bridge tried to- tri...
Life Satisfaction/SWB for Older and Middle
Aged NZ Chinese and Europeans: Benefits of
Integrated Double Identity for NZ Ch...
A pattern of additive acculturation
New Zealand identity most strongly related to “respect” &
“retain contact”
Chinese ide...
Policy Implications:
Speech from the Throne
• National Party’s policy agenda is to focus on
economic growth (for instance,...
Bridging Capital
Robert Putnam talks about bonding capital and
bridging capital, and what the NZCA LDC is
building is brid...
Historical Affordances for Authority:
China and the West (Liu & Liu, 2003)
Liberal
Democratic
Law
Paternalism
Guanxi
Paternalistic Leadership in Chinese
Societies: Authoritarian, Moralistic, and
Benevolent Components
Authority->Efficiency, Moral Example->
Identification, Benevolence->Gratitude
Benevolent Authority as both
description and ideal
Liu & Moughan 2010: Chinese youth in NZ
Liu & Moughan 2010: Chinese youth in NZ
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Liu & Moughan 2010: Chinese youth in NZ

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A presentation to the Office of Ethnic Affairs as part of the 2010 Emerging Researchers collaboration between CACR and the OEA.

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Transcript of "Liu & Moughan 2010: Chinese youth in NZ"

  1. 1. Identity and Leadership among New Zealand Chinese Youth: The New Zealand Chinese Association and its Youth Leadership Conference Prof. James H. Liu and Anna Moughan Centre for Applied Cross Cultural Research School of Psychology Victoria University of Wellington
  2. 2. Youth Voices, Youth Choices: CACR FRST BIS Portfolio • “By 2015 the voices of youth from diverse ethnic, cultural and religious communities will be heard and communities empowered to determine ways in which youth can attain integration.” • “This research contributes by addressing two key questions: 1) How do these youth construct their identities and negotiate issues pertaining to cultural maintenance and participation in the wider society? 2) What strategies or interventions promote positive identity, integration, cultural and social connectedness, and leadership within and between ethnic communities?”
  3. 3. New Zealand Chinese Demographics • Chinese as the Johnny-come-lately to NZ? • In terms of overall demographics, yes: – 1986: 26,523 – 1991: 44,802 – 1996: 81,312 – 2001: 105,057 – 2006: 147,570 But this does not count the disproportionate influence in terms of societal demographics of that 26,523 that were here before 1986 are thoroughly rooted to NZ
  4. 4. The Multi-generational Kiwi Chinese (www.nzchinese.org.nz) • The first wave of Chinese arrived in NZ in the 1860s as part of the Otago Goldrush. • First Chinese Association established in 1909 by the Chinese consul; it fell apart when successive consuls tried to get the assn involved in Chinese politics, eg supporting Yuan Shikai to be emperor • The present day NZ Chinese Assn is an umbrella organization that came together in 1935 at the Chinese Consul’s request to facilitate cooperation between regional assns, and grew by supporting the Chinese war effort in the Sino-Japanese War. • It currently has 13 regional branches that are its members all over the country. They are part of the pluralistic quilt of Chinese demographics in NZ.
  5. 5. Chinese Subject to Egregious Discrimination and Stereotyping in the early 20th century
  6. 6. The issue of immigration has regularly been contentious
  7. 7. Historical Legacy or Present Peril? • Recently the Race Relations Conciliator Joris de Bres highlighted that discrimination against Asians is perceived as the highest among any group in NZ. • The evidence of the personal experience of discrimination is not as thorough as third person perspectives, but there is some data that suggests that Asians experience discrimination more than other ethnic groups in NZ as well • However, some data provides a contrasting story, where third person ratings of discrimination/prejudice against Asian are higher than first person ratings.
  8. 8. Creating Value from Historical Injustice • An example of the activities of the NZCA is the outcomes of the Poll Tax initiative. The NZCA commissioned the research and the publication of the book "The Poll Tax in New Zealand". It initiated the dialogue and made submissions to the NZ Government on the discriminatory nature of the Poll Tax levied on early Chinese settlers who migrated to New Zealand. This tax was only levied on the Chinese. • The outcome was a apology from the Government and the establishment of a Chinese Poll Tax Heritage Trust in 2002 ($5 million). Its main objective is the maintenance of Chinese identity history and culture so far as it relates to Chinese New Zealanders.
  9. 9. Galvanising the NZCA • This had the effect of galvanising the NZCA to become much more proactive in presenting themselves as Kiwi Chinese, connected to but distinct from both NZ Europeans and overseas Chinese. • They have run several successful “Bananas Conferences” in Auckland attended by thousands
  10. 10. NZCA Leadership Development Conference • Originally conceived as a Summer Camp for NZ Chinese youth in 2007, it morphed into a “Leadership and Development Conference” in 2008 in Wellington, and spawned the brand “DragoNZ” in 2009 in Auckland. • Around 30-50 ethnic Chinese young adults ages 18-25 participate in the annual event. They vary in acculturation background, with a majority being Kiwi Chinese, but a few 1st and gen 1.5ers as well– all are fluent in English. • The conference emphasizes Chinese culture (e.g. calligraphy, lion dancing), sports/teamwork, and leadership. It draws speakers from all sectors of the more acculturated NZ Chinese community.
  11. 11. Action Research- Research with the Community as an Equal Partner • Dr James Liu’s portion of the YVYC project was to document the processes that led to the creation of the LDC, support LDC volunteers to add value to the to conference, and interview Chinese youth as to their identity and leadership experiences in the conference and in society at large. • We have developed an interactive website that is being trialled as a communication tool for both the NZCA and future organizers of the LDCs. Dr Liu has donated his time as a speaker at all 4 LDCs so far, talking both about leadership and Who’s Hot/Who’s Not.
  12. 12. A B C D D E F G
  13. 13. A B C D D E F G
  14. 14. Dating Preferences at UCLA (Liu, Campbell & Condie, 1995)
  15. 15. The NZCA LDC Identity and Leadership Interviews • Dr Liu has interviewed a wide spectrum of people involved in the NZCA LDC, from the founder of the original camp in 2007 and other senior leaders to the Youth Leaders who have organized it subsequently to youth participants. • Anna Moughan has transcribed some of the interviews and is currently analyzing the lot for her Honours Thesis in Psychology. Several of these theses each year in international journals, and this research will be fed back to the NZCA
  16. 16. Leadership and Identity in Kiwi Chinese
  17. 17. Major Themes - Identity Sense / feeling / intuition of what it is to be a Kiwi Chinese Most comfortable in the company of other Kiwi Chinese (& Asian New Zealanders) Difficulty articulating what it is to be a Kiwi Chinese Family Ties Work Ethic Self-Reliance
  18. 18. Major Themes - Identity “I wouldn’t know what it would be like to be any different, you know?” “The fact that we are all Chinese, it just feels much more comfortable, that you can be yourself..” “So if they are prepared to come and join in our activities that means they are wanting to embrace that NZ Chinese identity. Because if they want to be Chinese people just living in NZ, they’ll stay within those smaller groups.”
  19. 19. Major Themes - Identity “I wouldn’t know what it would be like to be any different, you know?” “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..” “So if they are prepared to come and join in our activities that means they are wanting to embrace that NZ Chinese identity. Because if they want to be Chinese people just living in NZ, they’ll stay within those smaller groups.”
  20. 20. Major Themes - Identity “I wouldn’t know what it would be like to be any different, you know?” “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..” “So if they are prepared to come and join in our activities that means they are wanting to embrace that NZ Chinese identity. Because if they want to be Chinese people just living in NZ, they’ll stay within those smaller groups.”
  21. 21. “I guess I thought I’ve been so comfortable with identifying myself as a Chinese New Zealander, but never really thought of myself as really Chinese, or never put any emphasis on that..” Major Themes - Identity “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..” “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..”“I wouldn’t know what it would be like to be any different, you know?”
  22. 22. “I guess I thought I’ve been so comfortable with identifying myself as a Chinese New Zealander, but never really thought of myself as really Chinese, or never put any emphasis on that..” Major Themes - Identity “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..” “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..”“I wouldn’t know what it would be like to be any different, you know?”
  23. 23. “I guess I thought I’ve been so comfortable with identifying myself as a Chinese New Zealander, but never really thought of myself as really Chinese, or never put any emphasis on that..” Major Themes - Identity “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..” “I've had a bit of a split, ah, lifestyle between, um, Chinese, and um, oh a Western culture- a Western lifestyle also” “I get along with Chinese better, just cause it feels like you have something in common to start off with ..”
  24. 24. Major Themes - Leadership Reluctance articulating differences between NZ Chinese and ‘Kiwi’ leadership Non culture-specific leadership Paying your dues
  25. 25. Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just, um, depends on what your crowd is. Major Themes - Leadership “I think if you achieve what you set out to do you get the respect for it, and the next time it comes up people will say, “Hey, this can happen. It’s happened before and he’s done it before, so maybe he’s worth listening to” “Leadership to me is influence, it's whether or not you can guide someone somewhere, and, sort of, take them somewhere, um, or encourage them onto something, um, it's about building someone up, and, um I guess taking them through challenges, yeah.” “Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just, um, depends on what your crowd is.”
  26. 26. “Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just, um, depends on what your crowd is.” Major Themes - Leadership “Track record. I think that that’s something that I’ve picked up on: “What’s your track record? What have you been involved in? Who are you? What have you brought?” It’s got to start somewhere.” “Leadership to me is influence, it's whether or not you can guide someone somewhere, and, sort of, take them somewhere, um, or encourage them onto something, um, it's about building someone up, and, um I guess taking them through challenges, yeah.”
  27. 27. “Um...... It's hard to say… yeah, just, um, depends on what your crowd is.” Major Themes - Leadership “Track record. I think that that’s something that I’ve picked up on: “What’s your track record? What have you been involved in? Who are you? What have you brought?” It’s got to start somewhere.” “Leadership to me is influence, it's whether or not you can guide someone somewhere, and, sort of, take them somewhere, um, or encourage them onto something, um, it's about building someone up, and, um I guess taking them through challenges, yeah.”
  28. 28. Major Themes - Leadership “Um … kinda find it quite hard to define.” “Leadership to me is influence, it's whether or not you can guide someone somewhere, and, sort of, take them somewhere, um, or encourage them onto something, um, it's about building someone up, and, um I guess taking them through challenges, yeah.” “Track record. I think that that’s something that I’ve picked up on: “What’s your track record? What have you been involved in? Who are you? What have you brought?” It’s got to start somewhere.”
  29. 29. Major Themes - Leadership “Um … kinda find it quite hard to define.” “Leadership to me is influence, it's whether or not you can guide someone somewhere, and, sort of, take them somewhere, um, or encourage them onto something, um, it's about building someone up, and, um I guess taking them through challenges, yeah.” “Track record. I think that that’s something that I’ve picked up on: “What’s your track record? What have you been involved in? Who are you? What have you brought?” It’s got to start somewhere.”
  30. 30. Major Themes - Bridging “I want to proactively to do something and so that's why I've tried to be the bridge tried to- tried to bring you know both Chinese and Pakehas together and to help other Kiwi Chinese realise you know what they can do as well and umm it's hard, it's very, very challenging” “I feel like I'm a bridge between different groups of people, and I try as much as I can to bridge the gap” “It's quite good to have two cultures”
  31. 31. Life Satisfaction/SWB for Older and Middle Aged NZ Chinese and Europeans: Benefits of Integrated Double Identity for NZ Chinese -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 Born in NZ Born Abroad NZ Europeans NZ Chinese
  32. 32. A pattern of additive acculturation New Zealand identity most strongly related to “respect” & “retain contact” Chinese identity most strongly related to “assist financially” and “please + make them happy”
  33. 33. Policy Implications: Speech from the Throne • National Party’s policy agenda is to focus on economic growth (for instance, the Building an Inclusive Society portfolio which funded this research is being closed) • But is the business migration category all there is? Previous generations of Asian business migrants have had real difficulty building connections in NZ, leading to astronaut families and parachute kids. • How to translate the social cohesion “magic” of the NZCA to tangible policy outcomes that enrich an economic growth agenda?
  34. 34. Bridging Capital Robert Putnam talks about bonding capital and bridging capital, and what the NZCA LDC is building is bridging capital. There is a long term vision to retain social networking component among alumni and build leadership capacity through interconnectedness. This is what is going to be the key to opening up the China market in an effective manner. You must understand that the business environment in China is entirely dependent on relationships and not based on protection under the law. Weakness of 2nd gen+ Kiwi Chinese is their lack of Chinese language fluency– but the Auckland LDC was linguistically diverse in 2009.
  35. 35. Historical Affordances for Authority: China and the West (Liu & Liu, 2003) Liberal Democratic Law Paternalism Guanxi
  36. 36. Paternalistic Leadership in Chinese Societies: Authoritarian, Moralistic, and Benevolent Components
  37. 37. Authority->Efficiency, Moral Example-> Identification, Benevolence->Gratitude
  38. 38. Benevolent Authority as both description and ideal

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