Petroleum/Crude Oil• Oil in mud or clay (oil shale) difficult to remove; clay particles so close together• Oil in sandstone easier to extract; sand particles not held as closely together as clay• Ample supply for at least 40 years
Petroleum/Crude Oil—Pros• oil is relatively cheap• easily transported• high net energy yield• efficient distribution system
Petroleum/Crude Oil—Cons• dependence on oil• waste• discourages use and exploration of alternative sources of energy• releases CO2 and other pollutants
Nuclear power—Pros• no air pollutants• much less CO2 than fossil fuels• water pollution and land disruption are minimal
Nuclear power—Cons• uranium remains suitable for about 3 years, then needs to be replaced• fuel rods are highly radioactive and few waste facilities exist• low net energy yield but improving• terror, nuclear weapons threat
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)• Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program• IPCC does not conduct research but assesses available peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature on climate change• Produces reports about every 5 years
IPCC reports• 2001 report: In the light of new evidence and taking into account the remaining uncertainties, most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely (66-90% chance) to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations• 2007 report: Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely (90-99% chance) due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.