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Energy non renewable-and_climate_change_

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  • 1. • Almost ALL energy ultimately comes from the sun, either directly or indirectly
  • 2. Carbon cycle
  • 3. Fig 15.3—Fossil fuel formation
  • 4. Alberta tar sands
  • 5. Fig 15.10—Alberta tar sands
  • 6. Keystone XL pipeline
  • 7. Petroleum/Crude Oil• Oil in mud or clay (oil shale) difficult to remove; clay particles so close together• Oil in sandstone easier to extract; sand particles not held as closely together as clay• Ample supply for at least 40 years
  • 8. Petroleum/Crude Oil—Pros• oil is relatively cheap• easily transported• high net energy yield• efficient distribution system
  • 9. Petroleum/Crude Oil—Cons• dependence on oil• waste• discourages use and exploration of alternative sources of energy• releases CO2 and other pollutants
  • 10. Fig 15.9—Hubbert’s prediction
  • 11. Fig 15.7—distillation of petroleum products
  • 12. Fig 15.8—uses of petroleum products
  • 13. Natural Gas• composed mainly of methane• should last at least 50 years, depending on Marcellus shale estimates• one of the cleanest burning of all fossil fuels• often found together with oil
  • 14. Marcellus shale
  • 15. Hydraulic fracturing• Also called “fracking”• Concerns about contamination of ground water and other types of pollution
  • 16. Natural Gas—Pros• as cheap as oil• easily transported• high net energy yield• burns cleaner
  • 17. Natural Gas—Cons• must be converted to liquid form for transport (reduces net energy yield)• methane leaks
  • 18. Coal—Pros• known reserves should last at least 200 years at current rate of use• high net energy yield
  • 19. West Virginia strip mine
  • 20. Coal—Cons• accidents and diseases• harms land• dirtiest fossil fuel to burn• high in CO2 and other pollutants
  • 21. Electricity generation in the US
  • 22. Fig 15.12—carbon capture
  • 23. Is there such a thing as “clean coal”?• Involves carbon capture and sequestration• Other impurities like sulfur, which contributes to acid rain, must be removed• Still need to dispose of ash
  • 24. Fig 15.18—Nuclear fission
  • 25. Nuclear power—Pros• no air pollutants• much less CO2 than fossil fuels• water pollution and land disruption are minimal
  • 26. Nuclear power—Cons• uranium remains suitable for about 3 years, then needs to be replaced• fuel rods are highly radioactive and few waste facilities exist• low net energy yield but improving• terror, nuclear weapons threat
  • 27. Fig 15.19—light water reactor
  • 28. Greenhouse effect• Main greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide
  • 29. Fig 14.10a—global temp change
  • 30. Fig 14.10b—Northern Hemisphere temp changes
  • 31. Climate change—what we know• Carbon dioxide levels have fluctuated; these levels correlate well with changes in surface temps
  • 32. Fig 14.7—CO2, methane, temps
  • 33. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)• Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program• IPCC does not conduct research but assesses available peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature on climate change• Produces reports about every 5 years
  • 34. IPCC reports• 2001 report: In the light of new evidence and taking into account the remaining uncertainties, most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely (66-90% chance) to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations• 2007 report: Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely (90-99% chance) due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations

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