New Passive1.14

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New Passive1.14

  1. 1. Active vs. Passive Verbs Create more powerful sentences with active verb forms.
  2. 2. Why Worry About Verbs? <ul><li>Active verbs create strong sentences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ricardo aced the examination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive verbs make weak sentences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The examination was aced by Ricardo. </li></ul></ul>Does the stranded man have an active girlfriend?
  3. 3. What is the Active Voice? <ul><li>In the active voice, the subject performs the action. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph draws a picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph is the subject and he is doing something (drawing). </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the Passive Voice? <ul><li>In passive voice the subject is acted on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: The picture was drawn by Joseph. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this case, the drawing is the subject and it is being acted upon by Joseph. </li></ul>Was the photographer hurt by the wild cow?
  5. 5. When Do We Use Passive? <ul><li>Use passive voice when you do not wish to emphasize the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking is prohibited. (passive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The management prohibits smoking. (active) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The passive keeps the management from being the “bad guys.” </li></ul>In this office scene, who’s the bad guy?
  6. 6. What if the agent is unimportant? <ul><li>Also use passive when the person or thing acting is unknown or unimportant. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous gases were found in six factories. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This passive sentence is about finding gases, not who found them. </li></ul>How important does the girl feel?
  7. 7. When do we use active voice? <ul><li>Use active voice all the time, unless you are required or have very specific reasons for doing otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Active voice leads to more concise writing. </li></ul><ul><li>It clarifies just who it is that is doing the action identified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “The thief plans to steal from the open house.” </li></ul></ul>Who feels excited about the open house?
  8. 8. How Do We Avoid Passive? <ul><li>Active sentences use verbs, not noun forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boss announced the party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not: The announcement about the party was made by the boss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ISA meets Wednesday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not: The ISA meeting will be Wednesday. </li></ul></ul>What announcement are the men imagining?
  9. 9. Can You Change Nouns to Verbs? <ul><li>The scientists couldn’t find a conclusion . </li></ul><ul><li>They held discussions on the topics. </li></ul><ul><li>No one could form a proposal for a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>They only made a translation of earlier studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientists couldn’t __. </li></ul><ul><li>They __ the topics. </li></ul><ul><li>No one could __ a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>They only __ earlier studies. </li></ul>Which statements are weak and which strong?
  10. 10. Can You Change Nouns to Verbs? <ul><li>The scientists couldn’t find a conclusion . </li></ul><ul><li>They held discussions on the topics. </li></ul><ul><li>No one could form a proposal for a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>They only made a translation of earlier studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientists couldn’t conclude . </li></ul><ul><li>They discussed the topics. </li></ul><ul><li>No one could propose a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>They only translated earlier studies. </li></ul>The active ones are much stronger.
  11. 11. Can You Make Passive Active? <ul><li>Another way of preserving active voice is by placing the noun doing the action before the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>The seeds were scattered by Jesse. </li></ul><ul><li> Jesse __ __ __. </li></ul><ul><li>A good harvest is expected by him. </li></ul><ul><li> He __ __ __ __. </li></ul>What is Jesse harvesting?
  12. 12. Is Passive the Past Verb Tense? <ul><li>Many people confuse the passive voice with the past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>It is true that the most common passive constructions also happen to be past tense ( e.g. &quot;I've been framed&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Yet &quot;voice&quot; is about who , while verb &quot;tense&quot; concerns when .  </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense: </li></ul><ul><li>The professor taught the class about passive. </li></ul><ul><li>The students learned the lesson about passive. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice: </li></ul><ul><li>The class is taught by the professor about passive. </li></ul><ul><li>The lesson about passive was learned by the students. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How do passives use BE verbs? <ul><li>Passives use BE verbs plus the past participle: </li></ul><ul><li>Regular verbs form the past participle just like the past - ed form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy was impress ed by Ms. Jones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irregular past participles are made with –en: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pizzas were eat en by bears. </li></ul></ul>How passive are the zoo bears?
  14. 14. Can we revise sloppy passives? <ul><li>Passive sentences do identify the doer of an action, so they can lead to sloppy or misleading statements especially in technical writing . </li></ul><ul><li>Compare how clear and direct the passive sentences become when they are rephrased as imperative sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Which alternate is better? </li></ul><ul><li>A. To drain the tank, the grill should be removed, or the storage compartment can be flooded. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Drain the tank in one of the following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remove the grill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flood the storage compartment </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Can you create passive voice? <ul><li>The printer __ (power) by a battery. </li></ul><ul><li>Many __ (convince) that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements __ (consider) foods and not drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>About 500 people __ (expect) to graduate this year. </li></ul><ul><li>5. All rooms at the motel __ (equip) with refrigerators. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Accommodations are expensive but __ (reduce) by 20% or more after September. </li></ul><ul><li>7. I doubt that such a policy __ (need) at the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Three types of RNA __ (involve) in protein synthesis. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Here is the passive voice: <ul><li>The printer was powered by a battery. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are convinced that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements are considered foods and not drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>About 500 people are expected to graduate from Dalton State this year. </li></ul><ul><li>5. All rooms at the motel are equipped with refrigerators. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Accommodations are expensive but are reduced by 20% or more after September. </li></ul><ul><li>7. I doubt that such a policy is needed at the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Three types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Can you use passive verbs? <ul><li>9. Archimedes ___ the math constant pi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is discovering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10. Bell _____ the telephone in 1876. </li></ul><ul><li>A. is invented </li></ul><ul><li>B. has invented </li></ul><ul><li>C. invented </li></ul><ul><li>D. was invented </li></ul><ul><li>11. &quot;The Last Judgement&quot; ___ by Michelangelo between 1536 and 1541. </li></ul><ul><li>A. painted </li></ul><ul><li>B. was painted </li></ul><ul><li>C. was being painted </li></ul><ul><li>D. has been painted </li></ul><ul><li>12. The first volume of the Lord of the Rings _____ in 1954. </li></ul><ul><li>A. was published </li></ul><ul><li>B. has been published </li></ul><ul><li>C. is published </li></ul><ul><li>D. published </li></ul>
  18. 18. Here are the passive verbs: <ul><li>9. Archimedes ___ the math constant pi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is discovering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10. Bell _____ the telephone in 1876. </li></ul><ul><li>A. is invented </li></ul><ul><li>B. has invented </li></ul><ul><li>C. invented </li></ul><ul><li>D. was invented </li></ul><ul><li>11. &quot;The Last Judgement&quot; ___ by Michelangelo between 1536 and 1541. </li></ul><ul><li>A. painted </li></ul><ul><li>B. was painted </li></ul><ul><li>C. was being painted </li></ul><ul><li>D. has been painted </li></ul><ul><li>12. The first volume of the Lord of the Rings _____ in 1954. </li></ul><ul><li>A. was published </li></ul><ul><li>B. has been published </li></ul><ul><li>C. is published </li></ul><ul><li>D. published </li></ul>
  19. 19. Can you use passive verbs? <ul><li>13. Many animals __ since Dolly the sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>A. have been cloned </li></ul><ul><li>B. had been cloning </li></ul><ul><li>C. were cloned </li></ul><ul><li>D. clones </li></ul><ul><li>14. That area __ by war for years. </li></ul><ul><li>A. is being troubled </li></ul><ul><li>B. has been troubled </li></ul><ul><li>C. trouble </li></ul><ul><li>D. is troubling </li></ul><ul><li>15. New technology __ due to market saturation. </li></ul><ul><li>A. delays </li></ul><ul><li>B. is delayed </li></ul><ul><li>C. was delayed </li></ul><ul><li>D. is delaying </li></ul><ul><li>16. The Park Service __ for years by crowding at the Grand Canyon. </li></ul><ul><li>A. has been embarrassed </li></ul><ul><li>B. embarrasses </li></ul><ul><li>C. embarrassed </li></ul><ul><li>D. is being embarrassed </li></ul>
  20. 20. Here are the passive verbs: <ul><li>13. Many animals __ since Dolly the sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>A. have been cloned </li></ul><ul><li>B. had been cloning </li></ul><ul><li>C. were cloned </li></ul><ul><li>D. clones </li></ul><ul><li>14. That area __ by war for years. </li></ul><ul><li>A. is being troubled </li></ul><ul><li>B. has been troubled </li></ul><ul><li>C. trouble </li></ul><ul><li>D. is troubling </li></ul><ul><li>15. New technology __ due to market saturation. </li></ul><ul><li>A. delays </li></ul><ul><li>B. is delayed </li></ul><ul><li>C. was delayed </li></ul><ul><li>D. is delaying </li></ul><ul><li>16. The Park Service __ for years by crowding at the Grand Canyon. </li></ul><ul><li>A. has been embarrassed </li></ul><ul><li>B. embarrasses </li></ul><ul><li>C. embarrassed </li></ul><ul><li>D. is being embarrassed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Can you create passive voice? <ul><li>17. Which planet (call) __ the red planet? </li></ul><ul><li>18. Our solar system (compose) __ of how many planets? </li></ul><ul><li>19. In 1957 a rocket (launched) __ into space by whom? </li></ul><ul><li>20. The first woman (send) __ into space by which nation? </li></ul><ul><li>Venus, Mars, Uranus, or Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, or Nine. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA, China, Japan, France, Brazil, or Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA, China, Japan, France, Brazil, or Russia. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Here is the passive voice: <ul><li>17. Which planet is called the red planet? </li></ul><ul><li>18. Our solar system is composed of how many planets? </li></ul><ul><li>19. In 1957 a rocket was launched into space by whom? </li></ul><ul><li>20. The first woman sent into space by which nation? </li></ul><ul><li>Venus, Mars , Uranus, or Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, or Nine . </li></ul><ul><li>The USA, China, Japan, France, Brazil, or Russia . </li></ul><ul><li>The USA, China, Japan, France, Brazil, or Russia . </li></ul>
  23. 23. How do we avoid BE verbs? <ul><li>Houses were destroyed by the storm. </li></ul><ul><li>The cake was eaten by me. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley. </li></ul><ul><li>The kitten was chosen by the girl. </li></ul><ul><li>The storm __ __. </li></ul><ul><li>I __ __ __. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Priestly __ __ __ ___. </li></ul><ul><li>The girl __ __ __. </li></ul>Which sentences are more clear?
  24. 24. How do we avoid BE verbs? <ul><li>Houses were destroyed by the storm. </li></ul><ul><li>The cake was eaten by me. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley. </li></ul><ul><li>The kitten was chosen by the girl. </li></ul><ul><li>The storm destroyed houses . </li></ul><ul><li>I ate the cake . </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen in 1774 . </li></ul><ul><li>The girl chose the kitten. </li></ul>The active sentences are more clear.
  25. 25. What are five action tips? <ul><li>Good writers prefer the active voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the subject is acting and not being acted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the verb form of nouns with suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Place subjects in front of the action they perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the use of BE forms of verbs. </li></ul>Make sure your sentences are full of something by using the active voice!

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