Relatively permanent changes in
behavior that result from exposure or
practice, provided that the behavioral
change is not caused by native-
response tendencies, maturation or
Pavlov assigned terms to
simplify his theory
Neutral Stimulus- is the bell at the start of
conditioning. It elicits no response from the object.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- is the bell at the
initial phase of conditioning which is paired with
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- is the food
which automatically causes salivation response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)- is
salivation. It is the response to the presentation of
the food or the unconditioned stimulus
Conditoned response (CR)- is salivation. It
refers to the learned response to the bell or
is a form of associative learning.
This involves pairing of neutral
stimulus with the unconditioned
stimulus for it to gain the
strength of actual stimulus.
Factors that may influence
after learning had taken place:
Stimulus Discriminaton- This is where we
learn to respond only to a stimulus that is the
same as the original conditional stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization- This is when we
respond to a stimulus similar to the original
stimulus to which we were conditioned.
Spontaneous Recovery- The reappearance of
a response after its extinction has been followed
by a period of rest.
Extinction-The result of the extinguished
There are two abnormal conditions
caused by learning :
the act of giving up trying as a result of
consistent failure to be rewarded in life,
thought to be a cause of depression.
refers to the re-emergence of a previously
extinguished conditioned response after a
Conducted an experiment using the
principles of classical conditioning.
Phobia can be learned
Planned a process called counter-
Studied learning using animals for his
Law of effect ( If a response to a
stimulus is followed by a satisfier )
(B.F Skinner) known as
instrumental condition. It is a
type of learning in which an
individual's behavior is modified
by its consequences; the
behavior may change in form,
frequency, or strength.
A Discriminative Stimulus gives the
organism the option of whether to respond
to it or not.
A Reinforcement means that the behavior will
happen more often.
Positive Reinforcement – when given
increases the probability of a response
Negative Reinforcement – when removed
increases response probability.
A Punishment means that the behavior will
happen less often.
A Shaping Behavior is one of the significant
applications of operant conditioning. The
process has been widely used in behavior
modification therapies and animal training
1. Determine the terminal response or goal
of the training
2. Take note of the natural behavior of the
3. Schedule of reinforcement
LEARNING BY OBSERVATION
occurs through observing the
behavior of others
presented an alternate theory of learning. His
theory is learning by observation and
Four Conditions should be present for
learning to occur:
Attention- interested in the appropriate features
of the behavior that is to be imitated
Retention- the learner must remember what he
has observed in order to use it at a latter time.
Motor Reproduction- the learner can now
perform the observed behavior with confidence
Motivation- the learner must have some
expectations that is execution of the new
behavior will give him some reinforcement
Aside from the conditions there are three
important variables should be kept in mind
for observational learning to occur.
The characteristic of the model- trust worthiness,
The characteristic of the learner- personality and
level of independence
The situation the person is in – people are more
likely to imitate others if they are uncertain about the
correctness of their behavior