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  1. 1. Learning Relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from exposure or practice, provided that the behavioral change is not caused by native- response tendencies, maturation or temporary states
  3. 3. Pavlov assigned terms to simplify his theory Neutral Stimulus- is the bell at the start of conditioning. It elicits no response from the object. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- is the bell at the initial phase of conditioning which is paired with the food. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- is the food which automatically causes salivation response Unconditioned Response (UCR)- is salivation. It is the response to the presentation of the food or the unconditioned stimulus Conditoned response (CR)- is salivation. It refers to the learned response to the bell or conditioned stimulus.
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning- is a form of associative learning. This involves pairing of neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus for it to gain the strength of actual stimulus.
  5. 5. Stages in Classical Conditioning:
  6. 6. Factors that may influence after learning had taken place: Stimulus Discriminaton- This is where we learn to respond only to a stimulus that is the same as the original conditional stimulus. Stimulus Generalization- This is when we respond to a stimulus similar to the original stimulus to which we were conditioned. Spontaneous Recovery- The reappearance of a response after its extinction has been followed by a period of rest. Extinction-The result of the extinguished response
  7. 7. There are two abnormal conditions caused by learning : the act of giving up trying as a result of consistent failure to be rewarded in life, thought to be a cause of depression. refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay.
  8. 8. Conducted an experiment using the principles of classical conditioning. Phobia can be learned Planned a process called counter- conditioning
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Studied learning using animals for his experiments. Law of effect ( If a response to a stimulus is followed by a satisfier )
  11. 11. Operant Conditioning-– (B.F Skinner) known as instrumental condition. It is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength.
  12. 12. A Discriminative Stimulus gives the organism the option of whether to respond to it or not. A Reinforcement means that the behavior will happen more often. Positive Reinforcement – when given increases the probability of a response Negative Reinforcement – when removed increases response probability. A Punishment means that the behavior will happen less often.
  13. 13. A Shaping Behavior is one of the significant applications of operant conditioning. The process has been widely used in behavior modification therapies and animal training Following Procedures: 1. Determine the terminal response or goal of the training 2. Take note of the natural behavior of the subject 3. Schedule of reinforcement
  14. 14. LEARNING BY OBSERVATION (Social Learning) occurs through observing the behavior of others
  15. 15. presented an alternate theory of learning. His theory is learning by observation and limitation Four Conditions should be present for learning to occur: Attention- interested in the appropriate features of the behavior that is to be imitated Retention- the learner must remember what he has observed in order to use it at a latter time.
  16. 16. Motor Reproduction- the learner can now perform the observed behavior with confidence Motivation- the learner must have some expectations that is execution of the new behavior will give him some reinforcement Aside from the conditions there are three important variables should be kept in mind for observational learning to occur. The characteristic of the model- trust worthiness, personality, power The characteristic of the learner- personality and level of independence The situation the person is in – people are more likely to imitate others if they are uncertain about the correctness of their behavior