Published on

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. INDEX 1-Construction materials 1.1-Stone 1.2- Cement (products of cement) 1.3- Mortar 1.4- Concrete (rainforced concrete) 1.5-Plaster 1.6- Ceramics (History, clay, products, manufacturing & bricks) 2-Phases to construct a building
  3. 3. From ancient times to the present day, builders have used a variety of materials for construction, like stone, wood, ceramics, mortar, steel, plaster, etc. Each material has different properties. Stone, ceramics & concretes are good for making columns & walls; wood & metal are good for making beams; ceramics are good for making roof tiles. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. 1.1-STONE Stone is a natural material that we extract from quarries. Different types of stone are used in construction: like granite slate & mable. Each one have different properties & are used for different purposes. Stone can be shaped to blocks(construct buildings) or into panels(as decorative panels). We use stone broken into “chip stone” to make foundations. Sand consists of very small stones. It's used for foundations & mixing with cement. Stone is also a common material for making break- waters. Sometimes stone is part of other materials.
  5. 5. 1.2-CEMENT Cement is a binder. It's dry grey powder that binds other materials toguether. Cement is a mixture of ground & baked minerals, oxides, & sometimes other substances. PRODUCTION OF CEMENT -First step: grind the chalk & the limestone. -Second step: yo ground chalk & limestone are then calcinated at 1450ºC in an oven called a “klin”. The calcinated groud mixture is called “clinker”. -Third step: Clinker is then ground again with a bit of gypsum. -Fourth step: All the other ingredients are mixed with the clinker & gypsum. Cement production has considerable enviromental
  6. 6. Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand & water. When we add water to the mixture it becomes a paste. When the cement & water come into contact they start a chemical reaction. “Setting” is the chemical reaction between the chemical elements of the different minerals & also the water. Before laying the bricks with the mortar, we dip the bricks into water. If the bricks are dry, they absorb the water from the mix & there isn't enough water for the chemical reaction(setting). Bricklayers lay a row of wet bricks & cover them with the mortar paste. Then they lay another row of bricks over the mortar paste. It's good practice to sprinkle water over the mortar a few hours after laying the bricks (helping the chemical reactions). 1.3- MORTAR
  7. 7. Concrete is mortarwith added pebbles, so it mixture of cement, water, sand & pebbles. The pebbles are harder & stronger than the mortar. We use concrete to make structural elements such as foundatios & beams. We made a mould with the shape of the element that we are going to make. The mould is made of four flat steel panels bolted to each other. To remove the air wich can be trapped in the mould, the concrete is vibrated to help the bubbles come up. 1.4-CONCRETE
  8. 8. REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced concrete is concrete with steel bars inside it. Rainforcing the element is important when the element or a part of the element will suffer tension forces. Concrete has good resistance to compression but not to tension. Steel has goos resistance to both compression & tension. We always reinforce the concrete in beams.
  9. 9. Plaster is a soft solid that we normally use for aesthetic purposes, to cover brick walls which have a rough surface. In addition, plaster foam is used as a fire- resistance material. Plaster comes from gypsum (a mineral). We extract gypsum from the quarry, and then grind it. When ground gypsum is mixed with water, it becomes a paste and we can spread it on interior walls. 1.5-PLASTER
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES: -Plaster gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish -It is easy to work with. -It is a good sound and thermal insulator. -It is resistant to fire within a room, reducing or eliminating structural damage. DISADVANTAGES: -It is weak. -It absorbs water. (For this reasons, plaster isn`t used on exterior walls)
  11. 11. 1.6-CERAMICS
  12. 12. HISTORY OF CERAMICS Ceramic is the oldest artificial material. In the beginning, ceramic was used for pottery & ornaments, but not as a contruction material. It was in Asia where people first used ceramics, more than10,000 years ago, when the Neolithic period started. Much later come the mass production of “bricks” for construction purposes. Bricks in Roman times were similar to the ones we produce today. We still use ceramics for ornamental purposes, but the main use of ceramic is the manufacture of bricks.
  13. 13. CLAY Clay is a mass of very small particules of rockformed by a long process of natural erosion fromthe rock. Clay is a natural material, but ceramics are artificial. Silicon is the most common mineral in clay, but we use clay with very different compositions to make ceramics. It's easy to confuse dry clay with ceramics, but they are different materials: -If we add water to dry clay , it becomes soft again.Then we can dry it, & it becomes hard again. -If we add water to ceramics, it stays hard.
  14. 14. The most common ceramic product is bricks. Other ceramic material are tiles, such as roofing tiles. Wall & floor tiles are ccoated with porcelain. Porcelain is much harder, it gives a soft surface, & it is completely waterproof. CERAMIC PRUDUCTS
  15. 15. 1- MOULDING: The first step in making ceramics is to give the caly the required shape , for example a brick. We make a mould with the negative shape of a brick, then we fill the mould with clay. 2- DRYING: The absorbed water is what makes the clay wet. When it evaporates the clay becomes hard, but if water is added, it becomes soft clay again. 3- FIRING: To remove the chemically bound water we need high temperatures. That is why the process is called “firing” the clay. Firing is done in a kiln, at temperatures between 1000ºC & 1600ºC. MANUFACTURING CERAMICS
  16. 16. BRICKS Bricks are used to make walls. Bricks are stronger than mortar. When cracks appeared in the mortar, Thy can't develop in a straight line, so the crack stop at the next brick.
  18. 18. 2.1-THE PAPERWORK It can be very time consuming and taxing, it is a necessary evil. The following are your main paperwork check off list: - Contract with the required deposit. - Builder package goes to the lender. - Blue prints for your project from the architect. - All application and fees paid. - Submit plans for review.
  19. 19. 2.2-TAKING SHAPE Before any building can take place, the lot must be prepared. Having a firm foundation is the key to building a solid structure. This requires: - Dirt work and lot leveling. - Footing and foundation complete, Trusses & Lumber delivered to the job site, and Framing. - Windows, garage and exterior doors in place - Wrap & scratch, brown coat - Roof tile stacked & Exterior trim painted
  20. 20. 2.3-INTERIOR SELECTIONS During this phase, all of the small interior details and personal touches get set into motion. - Appliances - Tile - Granite - Faucets - Sinks - Carpet - Hardware
  21. 21. 2.4-NEARLY COMPLETE As your house becomes a home, there are a few more major projects that must be completed: - Insulating your walls followed by drywall. - Texture spray and interior paint. - Cabinets installed and stained. - Tile work.
  22. 22. 2.5-FINISHING TOUCHES All of the pieces of the puzzle are almost together and yet there is still more to do: - Concrete flat work - Driveway - Stucco - Finalizing electrical and plumbing - Carpet installation - Then there is a Good Old Fashioned Cleaning, removal of all signs of construction so that all you are left with, is your perfect vision of your new Home. - Final Inspection