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Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
Stomach help
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Stomach help

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Stomach help

Stomach help

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  • 1. BY: AYODEJI ADEYEMI PRESENTATION ON THE STOMACH
  • 2. WHAT IS STOMACH The stomach is a muscular J-shape organ of the digestive tract. It secretes hormone called gastrin into the blood. It temporarily store and mixes food It secretes gastric juice into the lumen
  • 3. DESCRIPTION The stomach is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, just beneath the diaphragm. It is positioned between the esophagus and the small intestine. There is a sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, which allow food to pass into the stomach and prevent chyme from flowing backwards into the esophagus
  • 4. STOMACH IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PORTIONS Fundus- upper portion near esophagus Antrumbottom portion where pyloric located The body- the middle section
  • 5. The wall of the stomach is made up of four layers The mucous The mucous and submucous layers are made up of ridges called rugae. Within the ridges are gastric glands made up of; Mucous cells The submucous The muscular Parietal cells Chief cells And G-cells The peritoneal Each of these cells secretes a chemical that aids the process of digestion.
  • 6. SECRECTION IN THE STOMACH EXOCRINE Exocrine glands are located in the fundus and body of the stomach. The chief cells in these exocrine glands secrete pepsinogen, the inactive precursor of pepsin. also contain parietal cells. These parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid(HCl), which makes the stomach strongly acidic, with a pH of about 2 or 3. This is an optimal pH for the action of pepsin ENDOCRINE The G-cells are the only endocrine cells located in the stomach and are located mainly in the antrum of the stomach where there are few acid producing cells. Gastrin acts on the parietal cells, stimulating them to release hydrocloric acid G-cells release the hormone gastrin into the bloodstream.
  • 7. Muscular Activity The stomach must undergo muscular contractions in order to mix food and gastric juices together. These waves of involuntary muscular contractions are called peristalsis. When food is present, peristaltic contractions pass through the stomach muscles about two or three times every minute and continue at a constant rhythm. Pressure will begin to develop in the lower part of the stomach. When there is sufficient pressure, a small amount of the stomach's contents moves through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). It takes about two to six hours for the entire contents of the stomach to empty, depending on the composition of the person's diet. Low-fat meals leave the stomach more quickly than high-fat meals. Psychological states also affect the rate of stomach emptying; depression and fear may cause the stomach to empty slowly, while anger and aggression may cause the stomach to empty quickly. After the chyme has entered the duodenum and the pyloric sphincter has closed, some of the food returns to the stomach through retropulsion. Retropulsion is a process in which the stomach contents are squirted back into the stomach at a rate of about three times per minute. Retropulsion mixes the food with gastric juices and breaks larger clumps of food into smaller pieces.
  • 8. Role In Human Health  The stomach prepares food for digestion in the small intestine. If the stomach is not functioning properly, there are many problems that can arise with regard to digestion. Further, the contents of the stomach are so acidic and caustic to other organs of the body that they can cause problems if they leak out of the stomach, as may happen with perforating ulcers of the duodenum or penetrating wounds of the abdomen.
  • 9. COMMON HEALTH PROBLEM Gastritis Gastroenteritis Peptic ulcer disease Gastroesophageal reflux Gastritis : It is an inflammation of the gastric mucosal layer caused by a range of factors, including bacterial infections, medications (particularly NSAIDs), acute stress, and spicy foods or alcohol. Gastroenteritis is another common disorder of the digestive tract, characterized by inflammation of the stomach and the intestines. is caused by specific bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, etc.), amoebae or other parasites. The symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. Peptic ulcers can occur in the stomach, although they are more likely to develop in the small intestine. Small lesions develop in the mucosal membrane, causing bleeding. Other symptoms include heartburn and indigestion. Gastroesophageal reflux is caused by a malfunctioning sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, resulting in a release of chyme back into the esophagus.
  • 10. CONCLUSION  The stomach is a muscular organ of the digestive tract. It is located between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is hollow and sacshaped. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing).The stomach produces protease enzymes and hydrochloric acid which kills bacteria and gives the right pH for the protease enzyme to work.
  • 11. THANK YOU! I HOPE YOU ENJOY THE PRESENTATION

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