2. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Example: Restrictions imposed by other people laws, customs, nor
3. INDIVIDUAL’S OWN LIMITATIONExample: Lack of specific abilities, physical
4. CONFLICTWhat is a conflict?- Related to frustration is the state of conflict which results when we must make a choice of alternatives and cannot arrive at a decision.
One of the confusing things about frustration and conflict is that each may be the consequence of the other.Ex. Boy meets girl, asks for a date and is turn down: result—frustration. Should be ask again or give up? --
FOUR TYPES OF CONFLICT1. Approach – approach2. Avoidance – avoidance3. Approach – avoidance4. Double/multiple
1. APPROACH - APPROACHThistype of conflictoccurs when theindividual has twodesirable but mutuallyexclusive goals. +G ←P→ +G
2. AVOIDANCE - AVOIDANCE Thistype of conflict occurs when there are two undesirable situations but cannot avoid one without encountering the other. - →P← -
3. APPROACH - AVOIDANCE The conflict occurs when a person is both attracted and repelled by the same object , person or situation. This is difficult to resolve. The person is attracted to a goal that has both positive and negative values. P ±G
4. DOUBLE/MULTIPLE APPROACHInthis type of conflictone is attracted to twopositive goals but eachone has negativealternatives.Job Offer P Job Offer
WHAT MOTIVES PRESENT THE GREATEST POTENTIAL FOR CONFLICT? In our society today, there are motives which are most pervasive and difficult to resolve. These motives generally occur between the following areas:1. Independence vs. dependence2. Intimacy vs. isolation3. Cooperation vs. competition4. Impulses expression vs. moral standards
In time of stress we may want to resort to the dependence characteristics ofIndependence childhood, to have someone vs. take care of us dependence and solve our problems. But we are taught that the ability to stand on our own and assume responsibilities
The desire to be close to another and to share ourIntimacy innermost thoughts vs. and emotions mayisolation conflict with the fear of being hurt or rejected if we expose too much of ourselves.
Competitions begins in early childhood, among siblings continues through school, and culminatesCooperation in business and vs. professional rivalry. Atcompetition the same time, we are urged to cooperate with the help of others. Such contradictory expectations have the
All societies have to regulate impulses to some degree. Sex Impulses and aggression areexpression two areas in which vs. our impulses most frequently conflict moralstandards with moral standards. The violation of these standards may generate strong feelings of guilt.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE IMMEDIATE REACTIONS TO FRUSTRATIONS?
1. AGGRESSION Generally , aggression is a kind of behavior intended to harm another person. It is either physically or verbally. There are also two kinds of aggression namely:a. Direct aggressionb. Displaced Aggression (Indirect)
2. APATHY Thisis another response to frustration which is just the opposite of aggression. This kind of behavior shows indifference or withdrawal. Children whose aggressive outburst are never successful, who find they have no power to satisfy their needs by means of their own actions, may well resort to apathy and withdrawal when confronted with subsequent frustrating situations.
3. REGRESSION This behavior is described as a turn to childish forms of behavior. Adults sometimes resort to immature forms of behavior when faced with frustrating situations like to yell or start a fist fight, give up any attempt to cope and seek someone to solve the problem for them.
WHAT IS A DEFENSE MECHANISM?Defense mechanism refers to the unconscious processes that protect a person against anxiety by distorting reality in some way.
Defense mechanisms can be compared to drugs that reduce symptoms without curing the ailment. Similarly , defense mechanisms may provide relief from anxiety until more realistic ways of solving personal problems can be worked out.
THE FOLLOWING ARE A FEW OF THE DEFENSEMECHANISMS THAT CAN BE MENTIONED HERE:
1. DENIALThis is a defensemechanism by whichunacceptable impulsesor ideas are notperceived or allowedinto full awareness.
2. REPRESSIONThis is a denial of an impulse or memory that might provoke feelings of guilt by its disappearance from awareness. This denial is a defense against internal threats.
3. SUBLIMATION isa defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form.For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick- boxing as a means of venting frustration.
4.RATIONALIZATIO NA defense mechanism inwhich self-esteem ismaintained by assigningplausible and acceptablereasons for conduct enteredon impulsively or for lessacceptable reason.
5. REACTION- FORMATIONA defense mechanism inwhich a person denies adisapproved motivethrough giving strongexpression to its opposite.
6. PROJECTIONA defense mechanism inwhich people protectthemselves fromawareness of their ownundesirable traits byattributing those traits
7.IntellectualizationA defense mechanism triesto make a person gaindetachment from anemotionally threateningsituation by dealing with itin abstract , intellectual
8.DISPLACEMENTThis refers to a motive that is not directly expressed but appears in a more acceptable form.Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or
9.COMPENSATIONThis defense mechanism allows the individual to counterbalance his feelings of inadequacy by doing well in another activity.Ex. A crippled individual could develop his physique through body- building exercise or excelling in sports. This is a positive
Example negative compensation are found in people who pretend to be superior than others to cover up their feelings of inadequacy; in the student who distracts attention of classmates or making “show offs” because they believe that nobody notices them or is in need of recognition.
10.OVERCOMPENSATIONThis is also a type of compensation for a weakness by exerting too much effort to overcome it.Ex. Ludwig Van Beethoven suffered from deafness, yet became one of the world’s
11. CATHARSISThis mechanism is helpful in releasing some repressed feelings by “taking it out’ to a confidante.Ex. Good “bull sessions” with friends and T- group training