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Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
Alleviating student teachers report
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Alleviating student teachers report

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  • 1. IMPROVING STUDENT TEACHERS’ PRACTICE OF ALMs THROUGH COOPERATIVE LEARNING (RAAYYAA): THE CASE JTC BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT 3RD YEAR GROUP 2 Action Research Report to be submitted to HDP Office BY HDP Candidate of 2013 Chala Dandessa Chalchisa Degu Getachew Ayele Jimma, February 2014
  • 2. Table of Contents Table of Contents........................................................................................................................................2 1.Introduction..............................................................................................................................................3 1.1Background of the study.........................................................................................................................3 1.2Statement of the problem......................................................................................................................4 1.3Basic research questions........................................................................................................................5 1.4Objective of the study............................................................................................................................5 1.5Significance of the study.........................................................................................................................6 1.6Delimitation of the study........................................................................................................................7 1.7Definition of key terms...........................................................................................................................8 2.Literature Review.....................................................................................................................................9 4.Reference...............................................................................................................................................18 6.Appendixes.............................................................................................................................................19 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the study Cooperative learning represents the most carefully structured end of the collaborative learning continuum. Defined as “the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning” (Johnson et al. 1990), cooperative learning is based on the social interdependence theories of Kurt Lewin and Morton Deutsch (Deutsch, 1949; Lewin, 1935). This research will be conducted in Jimma Teachers’ College to improve the use cooperative learning by provided raayyaa of students. This is not meaning that raayyaa is cooperative learning. But if the structure of raayyaa managed, supported and responsibility is shared, the result will be cooperative learning. Then it can improve the achievement of each student in member of raayyaa. Raayyaa is a group of students which consists five members of students. Even if the raayyaa is provided from a group of students still it is not useful as it was designed. Therefore, in addition to the strategy of the government on raayyaa of students, this research will add very important achievements into raayyaa systems. By taking the result of this research to raayyaa of students, raayyaa will become more useful. If implemented properly, cooperative learning can provide an ideal way to cultivate supportive relationships between students. Regarding Jimma Teachers’ College biology third year group two there is a group work but not cooperative learning since it is not managed and the individual responsibility is not shared. If the groups are not managed and individuals have not shared responsibility, the groups will become covered by few students and increase failing of many students. Unless this problem is not solved it may cause the failing of many students. 3
  • 4. 1.2 Statement of the problem Cooperative learning is collaborative work which needs to be well managed, supported and responsibility shared. Unless the teacher fellow, support and manage the groups; group activity will dominantly covered by active students and the others may become passive and only listeners. In other case, if students have been taught in whole groups where the teacher talks 70% of the time (Goodlad, 1984; Cuban, 1988; Sirotnick, 1983). Here the students have been expected to sit and listen passively, without talking or engaging with their classmates. Yet, studies have shown that students’ attention decreases as lectures progress (Stuart and Rutherford, 1978). In Jimma Teachers’ College all students have been grouped as raayyaa. But, the problem is on the construction of this raayyaa; there is no shared responsibility which can make the raayyaa more effective. Therefore, if it is managed, supported and responsibility shared raayyaa groups can help as cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is more than just groupwork. A key difference between cooperative learning and traditional group work is that in the latter, students are asked to work in groups with no attention paid to group functioning, whereas in cooperative learning, groupwork is carefully prepared, planned, and monitored (Jacobs, 1997; Johnson & Johnson, 1994; Ng & Lee, 1996). In biology third year group two all students have a group which formed from five students which we call Raayyaa (tokko shanee). But they have no structured and shared responsibility to make it inclusive to all members of the group. Group which has unshared responsibility between group members can use only those who are active and make others passive. . 4
  • 5. 1.3 Basic research questions  What are the great challenges of practicing cooperative learning in this class?  What are the sources of those challenges?  How those problems can be solved? 1.4 Objective of the study  To identify the stages of implementing share practices.  To prepare a manual consisting procedures of cooperative learning.  To identify the causes of problems for practicing cooperative learning.  To find solutions for the problems  To take action for identified problems  To give recommendation for users. 5
  • 6. 1.5 Significance of the study The main objective of this research is to improve the implementation of cooperative learning (tokko shanee) which is in line with the current strategies of the government. Even if the Raayyaa is inserted into educational progress it is not actually being implemented as it is designed. Therefore, this research deals with implementation of Raayyaa which is strong power of learning and teaching. Additionally, cooperative learning is one of the best types of active learning to inclusively create participation of students in teaching and learning area. Therefore, this research can be useful to practice implementation of cooperative learning. Several conditions that promote cooperation are seen as criteria elements of cooperative learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1990) - clearly perceived positive interdependence (the feeling among group members that what helps one member helps all and what hurts one hurts all); face-to-face promotive interaction (students need to be interacting with one another, not just members of the same group); individual accountability (each group member feels responsible for their own learning and for helping their group mates learn); the teaching of collaborative skills; and group processing (groups spending time discussing the dynamics of their interaction and how they can be improved. Communication is structured very differently in cooperative learning classes. Because students learn in collaboration, they consequently engage in extensive verbal negotiations with their peers. The cooperative group provides a more intimate setting that permits such direct and unmediated communication (Shachar & Sharan, 1994). Such a context, proponents of cooperative learning believe, is key to students engaging in real discussion and wrestling with ideas. In this context then, students will be given opportunities to stretch and extend their thinking. 6
  • 7. 1.6 Delimitation of the study Because of lack of time, budget and classroom contact this research will be limited in JCTE third year biology group two students. 7
  • 8. 1.7 Definition of key terms JCTE = Jimma College of Teachers Education Raayyaa = a group of students consisting five members. Tokko shanee = raayyaa of students consists five number members . 8
  • 9. 2. Literature Review Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. (Johnson, Johnson, Smith, 1992) Elements of cooperative learning 1. Positive interdependence. Team members are obliged to rely on one another to achieve the goal. If any team members fail to do their part, everyone suffers consequences. One of the essential elements of cooperative learning is the notion that student accomplishments are tied together. The success of one group member is connected with the success of the others on the team. Johnson and Johnson (1999) identify this feature of collaborative group work as positive interdependence. The authors contend, “It is positive interdependence that creates the realization that group members have two responsibilities: to learn the assigned material and to ensure that all members of their group learn the assigned material” (Johnson &Johnson, 1999, p.75). As a result of positive interdependence, one student is not left doing all the work, while others coast by. Assignments are designed in a way that makes it difficult for students to work independently. 2. Individual accountability. All students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of the work and for mastery of all of the material to be learned. 3. Face-to-face promotive interaction. 9
  • 10. Although some of the group work may be parceled out and done individually, some must be done interactively, with group members providing one another with feedback, challenging one another's conclusions and reasoning, and perhaps most importantly, teaching and encouraging one another. Another significant aspect of cooperative learning includes face-to-face interaction. This constituent insists that a substantial amount of time is arranged when students can meet with each other in person. Johnson and Johnson (1999) advise, “The discipline of using cooperative groups includes ensuring that group members meet face to face to work together to complete assignments and promote each other’s success” (p.82). The researchers reveal that it is the combination of both positive interdependence and face-to-face interaction which produce the most powerful allegiances between learners, as well as the greatest commitment to each other’s success (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). 4. Appropriate use of collaborative skills. Students are encouraged and helped to develop and practice trust building, leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management skills. 5. Group processing. Team members set group goals, periodically assess what they are doing well as a team, and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future. (Felder, 1994) Lastly, it is important for students to reflect on what went well in their groups, as well as what could be improved upon during future collaborative work. Johnson and Johnson (1999) define 10
  • 11. group processing as, “a) Reflecting on a group session to describe what member actions were helpful and unhelpful and b) making decisions about what actions to continue or change” (p.85). It is presumed that mulling over what worked and what did not work will help guide groups to being increasingly productive. Hence, the rationale behind group processing is to improve the group’s ability to efficiently reach their goals. 11
  • 12. 3.1. Chapter 3 3. Data Processing, Analyzing and Presentation Data presentation and Discussion From the suggested class about 42 students was included participated in questionnaire. All of the data from questionnaire was prepared as the following. Data from the questionnaire No. Questions Answer In number % out of 42 41 97.62 1 2.38 None of it 0 - Yes 2 4.76 40 95.24 None of it 0 - Yes 6 14.28 36 85.71 None of it 0 - Yes Is there clear instruction from the instructors while using raayyaa No groups? None of it 17 40.48 25 59.52 0 - Yes Is there sufficient support for all groups from the instructors while No using raayyaa groups? None of it 13 30.95 27 64.29 2 4.76 Yes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Are all students grouped as No raayyaa? Is there the role shared for each No member of groups? Are all members participating in a No groups? 12
  • 13. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No None of two Organized as Shared All members raayyaa responsibility participating Is clear instruction sufficient support According to data from the students 97.62 % of the students confirmed that as they were organized as tokko shanee. Even if they were organized as tokko shanee but, 95.24 % of the students answered as they had no shared responsibility for all group members. 13
  • 14. Observation Checklist before implementation No. Checklist Yes No 1. Are there organized groups in this class? 2. Does each member of the group shared responsibility? √ 3. Is there clear instruction from instructor while they work in groups? √ 4. Are all members participating? √ 5. Is there group writer? √ 6. Is there group time keeper? √ 7. Is there group presenter? √ 8. Is there support from instructor for all groups? Observation Checklist during implementations 14 √ √ Remark
  • 15. No. Checklist Yes 1. Are there organized groups in this class? √ 2. Does each member of the group shared responsibility? No √ 3. Is there clear instruction from instructor while they work in √ groups? 4. Are all members participating? √ 5. Is there group writer? √ 6. Is there group time keeper? √ 7. Is there group presenter? √ 8. Is there support from instructor for all groups? √ Observation Checklist after implementations 15 Remark
  • 16. No. Checklist Yes 1. Are there organized groups in this class? √ 2. Does each member of the group shared responsibility? No √ 3. Is there clear instruction from instructor while they work in √ groups? 4. Are all members participating? √ 5. Is there group writer? √ 6. Is there group time keeper? √ 7. Is there group presenter? √ 8. Is there support from instructor for all groups? √ 3.2. Major Findings Depending up on the data from students the major problems of implementing active learning through the cooperative learning are the followings:  There was no shared responsibility for each member of all groups.  There is no equal participation between group members.  There is no sufficient support from the instructors while using raayyaa groups.  Additionally there was a problem on giving clear instruction from the teachers. 3.3. Implementation of Action Plan 1. Researchers assigned a role for each group members of tokko shanee. 16 Remark
  • 17. 2. Researchers gave a group work and evaluated all group members as they are participating. 3. Researchers used the following steps to give clear instruction and support. The steps are:   Giving Instructions  Checking for Students’ Understanding of Instructions  Forming Groups  Assigning Roles  Timing the Activity  Telling the Students to Start the Activity  Monitoring and Facilitating the Activity  Telling the Students How Much Time Is Left  Telling the Students to Stop Doing the Activity  Getting the Learners on Report Back Their Answers to the Class  3.4. Telling the Students What they are Doing Giving feedback. Evaluation of Action After a week later researchers evaluated the implementation cooperative group work twice as the students are using it actively. After observation of the students, all group members were participating actively. 17
  • 18. 4. Reference http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/research/projects/hewlett/cooperative.php Johnson et al. 1990 Deutsch, 1949; Lewin, 1935 Johnson and Johnson, 1989 Goodlad, 1984; Cuban, 1988; Sirotnick, 1983 Stuart and Rutherford, 1978 Vermette, 1998 Cohen, 1994; Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Sharan, 1980, Slavin, 1990 Johnson & Johnson, 1990; Qin, Johnson, & Johnson, 1995 Marzano, 1992 Jacobs, 1997; Johnson & Johnson, 1994; Ng & Lee, 1996 Johnson & Johnson, 1990 Adams & Hamm, 1990; Kagan, 1994 Jacobs, 1997 Shachar & Sharan, 1994 Johnson, Johnson, Smith, 1992 Johnson and Johnson (1999) 18
  • 19. Johnson &Johnson, 1999, p.75 Johnson and Johnson 1999,p.82) Johnson & Johnson, 1989 Felder, 1994 Johnson and Johnson (1999 6. Appendixes A. Questionnaire on Improving ALMs through Cooperative Learning I. Personal Information A. Sex: Female  Male  B. Age _________________________ C. Department _________________ II. Tokko shanee Information a. Have you been grouped as students Raayyaa (Tokko shanee in your class? Yes  No  b. Have you shared a role in your Raayyaa? Yes  No  c. If ‘Yes’ for the above what is your role write it _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ 19
  • 20. d. If ‘No’ for question on ‘b’ why? Write the reason__________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ III. Main Questions 1. Group organization. a. Have you been organized according to tokko shanee? Yes  No  b. If ‘yes’ for the above question; is your group participation include all members? Yes  No  2. Instruction 2.1. Is there clear instruction while using group work? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Group Support III.1. Is there sufficient support from your instructor? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Groups members role assigning (group manager, writer, presenter and time keeper,) 4.1. Have you been assigned roles for each members of the group? Yes  No  Another ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. Any additional idea regarding group organizion, support and member responsibility in your class . 20
  • 21. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ 5. Interview questions 1. Is there organized group while using group work? 2. Is there shared responsibility between group members? 3. Is there clear instruction from a teacher while using group work? 4. Is there support from a teacher while using group work by tokko shanee? 21
  • 22. 6. Observation Checklist No. Checklist Yes 9. Are there organized groups in this class? 10. Does each member of the group shared responsibility? 11. Is there clear instruction from instructor while they work in groups? 12. Are all members participating? 13. Is there group writer? 14. Is there group time keeper? 15. Is there group presenter? 16. Is there support from instructor for all groups? 17. 18. 22 No Remark

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