Linked Data and Time – Modeling Researcher Life Lines by Events
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Linked Data and Time – Modeling Researcher Life Lines by Events

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Our paper presented by Werner Kuhn at COSIT 2013.

Our paper presented by Werner Kuhn at COSIT 2013.

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Linked Data and Time – Modeling Researcher Life Lines by Events Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Linked Data and Time Modeling Researcher Life Lines by Events Johannes Trame, Carsten Keßler, Werner Kuhn Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 2. Persons Patents PublicationsProjects Prizes 5 P Central Research Information System @ WWU Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 3. •Inflexible schema, difficult integration •Query capabilities limited to „who produced what?“ Persons Patents PublicationsProjects Prizes 5 P Central Research Information System @ WWU Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 4. •Inflexible schema, difficult integration •Query capabilities limited to „who produced what?“ Persons Patents PublicationsProjects Prizes 5 P Central Research Information System @ WWU ➡ Linked Open Data University of Muenster Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 5. •TIME and SPACE are missing (or implicit) •We are interested in „who did what, when, where ?“ •add two P’s (Periods and Places) Persons Patents PublicationsProjects Prizes 5 P Central Research Information System @ WWU Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 6. Angela WWU dc:creator dbpedia:hasOccupation dbpedia:Teacher dbpedia:activeYearsStart „2008“ foaf:member Paper456 foaf:based_near 51.96, 7.62 Triples andTime Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 7. Angela WWU dc:creator dbpedia:hasOccupation dbpedia:Teacher dbpedia:activeYearsStart „2008“ foaf:member Paper456 foaf:based_near 51.96, 7.62 Paper123 ETH „2010“ dbpedia:Professor 47.37, 8.54 Triples andTime Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 8. ? ? Angela WWU dc:creator dbpedia:hasOccupation dbpedia:Teacher dbpedia:activeYearsStart „2008“ foaf:member Paper456 How to add (represent) time and space meaningfully and usefully? foaf:based_near 51.96, 7.62 Paper123 ETH „2010“ dbpedia:Professor 47.37, 8.54 Triples andTime Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 9. Time as Meta-Information example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation - RDF Reication Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 10. Time as Meta-Information example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation _:xxx subject predicate object dc:date „2008“ - RDF Reication Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 11. Time as Meta-Information example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation _:xxx subject predicate object dc:date „2008“ example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation - Named Graphs - RDF Reication Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 12. Time as Meta-Information example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation _:xxx subject predicate object dc:date „2008“ example:Angela dbpedia:Professordbpedia:hasOccupation „2008“ example:NamedGraph123 dc:dateexample:NamedGraph123 - Named Graphs - RDF Reication Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 13. Time in RDF(S) extensions • to model valid time, based on temporal database theory • extending the syntax and interpretation of the language Temporal RDF Graphs Multidimensional RDF Applied Temporal RDF stRDF RDF STT Temporal Quintuples Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 14. Time in RDF(S) extensions • to model valid time, based on temporal database theory • extending the syntax and interpretation of the language Temporal RDF Graphs Multidimensional RDF Applied Temporal RDF stRDF RDF STT Temporal Quintuples Problems • time (and space) as a feature of the KR language • interaction with the open world assumption Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 15. N-Ary Relations - conceptual reication org:hasMembership example:Angela example:WWUfoaf:member foaf:Person org:Membership org:hasOrganization org:Organization Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 16. N-Ary Relations - conceptual reication org:hasMembership example:Angela example:WWUfoaf:member foaf:Person org:Membership org:hasOrganization org:Organization org:Timeorg:Role org:duringorg:role Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 17. • the natural choice, but... Problems • leads to ad-hoc proliferation of objects • lacks logical design patterns • no means to identify n-ary patterns as such N-Ary Relations - conceptual reication org:hasMembership example:Angela example:WWUfoaf:member foaf:Person org:Membership org:hasOrganization org:Organization org:Timeorg:Role org:duringorg:role Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 18. Event-Oriented Modeling Event Ontology (EO) CIDOC CRMABC Ontology SEM F-Event Model LODE http://motools.sourceforge.net/event/event.html sem:Event sem:Actorsem:Place sem:Time sem:EventType hasTime hasPlace hasActor eventType Related Work Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 19. Object - Event - Situation Participation Object Event Our Approach = Entity = Event = Object = PhysicalObject = SocialObject = Concept = Situation Dolce Ultralite Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 20. Object - Event - Situation Participation participates Object Event Our Approach = Entity = Event = Object = PhysicalObject = SocialObject = Concept = Situation Dolce Ultralite Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 21. Object - Event - Situation Participation participates Object Event Concept classifies Our Approach = Entity = Event = Object = PhysicalObject = SocialObject = Concept = Situation Dolce Ultralite Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 22. Object - Event - Situation Participation participates Object Event Concept classifies Situation Description according-to Our Approach = Entity = Event = Object = PhysicalObject = SocialObject = Concept = Situation Dolce Ultralite Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 23. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 24. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper performs theme Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 25. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject idea of thematic roles from linguistics [Davidson etc.]: - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper performs theme Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 26. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject idea of thematic roles from linguistics [Davidson etc.]: • write (authorX, paper, pen, library, midnight) - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper performs theme Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 27. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject idea of thematic roles from linguistics [Davidson etc.]: • write (authorX, paper, pen, library, midnight) • e [write (authorX, paper, e) ^ with (e, pen) ^ in (e, library) ^ at (e, midnight)] - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper performs theme Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 28. Multiple participants in events PhysicalObject ! InformationObject idea of thematic roles from linguistics [Davidson etc.]: • write (authorX, paper, pen, library, midnight) • e [write (authorX, paper, e) ^ with (e, pen) ^ in (e, library) ^ at (e, midnight)] • e [write (e) ^ agent (e, authorX) ^ location (e, library) ^ time (e, midnight)] - functional participation relations e.g.a Person e.g.a Paper Event e.g.writing a Paper performs theme Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 29. Temporal and Spatial Properties hasTimeInterval participates Object Interval Event PhysicalRegion hasLocation Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 30. Temporal and Spatial Properties hasTimeInterval eventPlace participates approxLocation Object Interval Event Place PhysicalRegion hasLocation Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 31. Temporal Relations Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 32. Temporal Relations [precedes: (?object dul:isParticipantIn ?p) (?object dul:isParticipantIn ?q) (?p pres:eventTime ?a) (?q pres:eventTime ?b) notEqual(?a,?b) (?a pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?enda) (?b pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?startb) lessThan(?enda,?startb) -> (?p temp:precedes ?q) (?q temp:follows ?p) ] Our Approach Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 33. Application:CV Application Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 34. Application:CV Application Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 35. Application:CV Application Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 36. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 37. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } in which events did a person participate? Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 38. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } in which events did a person participate? which (social) concept is assigned to the event? Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 39. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } in which events did a person participate? which (social) concept is assigned to the event? when did the event start and end? Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 40. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } in which events did a person participate? what social roles did the person play in the event? which (social) concept is assigned to the event? when did the event start and end? Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 41. SELECT ?start ?end ?rolename ?placename WHERE { ! cris:8220 dul:isParticipantIn ?event. ! OPTIONAL{ ?event pres:eventType pres:CareerEvent; } ! ?event pres:eventTime ?int. ! ?int pres:hasIntervalStartDate ?start. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?int pres:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ! }. ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?person pres:hasPersonRole ?role. ! ! ?role pres:isPersonRoleIncludedIn ?sit. ! ! ?sit dul:includesEvent ?event. ! ! ?role dct:title ?rolename. ! } . ! OPTIONAL{ ! ! ?event pres:eventPlace ?place. ! ! ?place pres:placeName ?placename. ! } } in which events did a person participate? what social roles did the person play in the event? which (social) concept is assigned to the event? when did the event start and end? where did the event take place? Application Queries Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 42. Application:CV Browser Application Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 43. Conclusions • The event model based on DUL + DnS provides a solid base for representing time and space meaningfully and usefully • straight-forward design guidelines • overcomes typical spatio-temporal modeling problems • easy to extend • can be composed to more complex and/or domain specic content patterns which interoperate • In some situations the systematic introduction of events might be cumbersome but • provides us with a solid base for temporal reasoning • grounds entities for „difcult“ relations • allows for different interpretations of what is happening Conclusion Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 44. Future Work • vague time-intervals • event reasoning (analogy-based, identity) • inference (construction) of new events • computational issues • events beyond “academic” examples Conclusion Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 45. "... events are primarily linguistic or cognitive in nature. That is, the world does not really contain events. Rather, events are the way by which agents classify certain useful and relevant pattern of change.“ *James Allen 1994 Thank you for your attention! Gantt Chart designed by Jeremy Boatman, Patent designed by James Christopher, Globe designed by Hüsnü Koyuncu, City designed by Thibault Geffroy from The Noun Project Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 46. Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 47. Epistemological KR Languages are ontological neutral The Ontological Level - the „Missing“ Level Level Primitive Constructs Main Feature Interpretation Logical Predicates Formalisation Arbitrary Epistemological Structuring Relations (Concepts and Roles) Structure Arbitrary Ontological Structuring Primitives Meaning Constrained Conceptual Cognitive Primitives Conceptualisation Subjective Linguistic Linguistic Primitives Language Subjective * Guarino, N. (1994). The ontological level & Guarino, N. (2009). The Ontological Level : Revisiting 30 Years of Knowledge Representation Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 48. Epistemological KR Languages are ontological neutral The Ontological Level - the „Missing“ Level Level Primitive Constructs Main Feature Interpretation Logical Predicates Formalisation Arbitrary Epistemological Structuring Relations (Concepts and Roles) Structure Arbitrary Ontological Structuring Primitives Meaning Constrained Conceptual Cognitive Primitives Conceptualisation Subjective Linguistic Linguistic Primitives Language Subjective * Guarino, N. (1994). The ontological level & Guarino, N. (2009). The Ontological Level : Revisiting 30 Years of Knowledge Representation Person Teacher is-A Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 49. Epistemological KR Languages are ontological neutral The Ontological Level - the „Missing“ Level Level Primitive Constructs Main Feature Interpretation Logical Predicates Formalisation Arbitrary Epistemological Structuring Relations (Concepts and Roles) Structure Arbitrary Ontological Structuring Primitives Meaning Constrained Conceptual Cognitive Primitives Conceptualisation Subjective Linguistic Linguistic Primitives Language Subjective * Guarino, N. (1994). The ontological level & Guarino, N. (2009). The Ontological Level : Revisiting 30 Years of Knowledge Representation Person Teacher is-A Course teacher Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 50. Epistemological KR Languages are ontological neutral The Ontological Level - the „Missing“ Level Level Primitive Constructs Main Feature Interpretation Logical Predicates Formalisation Arbitrary Epistemological Structuring Relations (Concepts and Roles) Structure Arbitrary Ontological Structuring Primitives Meaning Constrained Conceptual Cognitive Primitives Conceptualisation Subjective Linguistic Linguistic Primitives Language Subjective * Guarino, N. (1994). The ontological level & Guarino, N. (2009). The Ontological Level : Revisiting 30 Years of Knowledge Representation Person Teacher is-A Course teacher ➡Ontological commitment remains implicit Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 51. Todays Knowledge is kept in silos... : Open silos and link data across silos FormatsOrganizations Terminology e.g.University e.g.Libraries e.g.GovernmentalData Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 52. Todays Knowledge is kept in silos... : Open silos and link data across silos FormatsOrganizations Terminology e.g.University e.g.Libraries e.g.GovernmentalData : Open silos and link data across silos Background Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 53. Space-Temporal Reasoning Sunday, September 8, 13
  • 54. Space-Temporal Reasoning Space-Temporal Reasoning Sunday, September 8, 13