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Demand and Supply Challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • 1. Demand and Supply Challenges to Food Security in Sub-Saharan AfricaCited from:The Montpellier Panel, 2013, Sustainable Intensification:A New Paradigm for African Agriculture, LondonDemand Challenges Supply Challenges• Over 200 million people, nearly 23%, of the Africanpopulation, are now classed as hungry.• Despite declines up to 2007, hunger levels have beenrising 2% per year since then.• 40% of children under the age of five in SSA are stunteddue to malnutrition.• SSA has a population of around 875 million, with an averageannual growth rate of 2.5%.• The population in SSA will almost double by 2050, to close totwo billion people.• Between now and 2100 three out of every four peopleadded to the planet will live in SSA.• 50% of the population will live in cities by 2030.• Incomes are rising with GDP per capita in SSA expected to reach$5,600 by 2060, and diets already beginning to change.• On present trends, African food production systems will only be ableto meet 13% of the continent’s food needs by 2050.• Nearly 3.3% of agricultural GDP in SSA is lost annually because ofsoil and nutrient loss.• Cereal yields have increased by over 200% in Asia and LatinAmerica but only by 90% in Africa, between 1961 and 2011.• In SSA only 4% of cultivated land is irrigated.• In SSA only about seven million ha of new land have beenbrought into production between 2005 and 2010.• Between 1991 and 2009 per capita arable land fell by about76m2per year.• Under moderate climate change with no adaptation, total agriculturalproduction will reduce by 1.5% in 2050.• More than 95 million ha of arable land, or 75% of the total in SSA,has degraded or highly degraded soil, and farmers lose eight milliontons of soil nutrients each year, estimated to be worth $4 billion.