Industrial Symbiosis

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  • Topic in focus: Industrial symbiosis; part of a new field of study called ‘industrial ecology’
  • 1989, frosch and gallopoulos envisioned ‘industial ecosystem’ Demarks the shifting of industrial process from a linear to a closed-loop system where waste = resource
  • 1989, frosch and gallopoulos envisioned ‘industial ecosystem’ Demarks the shifting of industrial process from a linear to a closed-loop system where waste = resource Industrial symbiosis then came as means of approaching an industrial ecosystem or rather an ecologically sustainable industrial development
  • Industrial symbiosis then came as means of approaching an industrial ecosystem or rather an ecologically sustainable industrial development So, what is industrial symbiosis
  • The term symbiosis builds on the notion of biological symbiotic r/s in nature where otherwise unrelated species living together, exchange in a mutually beneficial manner, known as mutualism Birds prey on parasites that feed on hippopotamus. The parasites that are harmful for the animal becomes source of food for the birds.
  • In a collective approach that bring environmental and economic benefits including resource efficiency, reduced cost and improved waste management
  • In view of the many advantages that come with symbiosis, parks emerge from government initiatives and planning that involve a co-location of industries to facilitate exchange of resources and utility sharing
  • Despite the synergistic opportunities offered by geographical proximity Example: eco-industrial clusters, where related industries ard the world engage in interfirm resource sharing Spontaneous/unplanned. term coined in kalunborg, denmark: regional symbiosis that emerged from self-organization in the private sector To understand how symbiosis emerge and the revelation of the symbiotic opportunities - pam
  • 1 organization disposal might be anothers need
  • Molasses – sugar refining residue Bagasse –fibrous waste product
  • A home that is itself a living ecosystem, created using a gardening method known as pleaching, weaving together tree branches to form living archways, lattices, or screens The living structure is grafted into shape with prefabricated Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) reusable scaffolds The seasonal cycles help the tree structure provide for itself through composting of fallen leaves in autumn.  Seedlings started in such a nutrient rich bed to grow homes and add green to the existing urbanscape Symbiosis: this living home is designed to be nearly entirely edible so as to provide food to some organism at each stage of its life cycle. While inhabited, the home’s gardens and exterior walls continually produce nutrients for people and animals On the interior wall, mixture of clay and straw provide insulation and block moisture On south-facing walls, windows made of soy-based plastics absorb warmth in winter
  • grey water irrigates the gardens and would be purified in an living machine with bacteria fish and plants Cleaned water enters the pond, where it may infiltrate the soil or evaporate to the atmosphere.  water consumed by the vegetation eventually returns to the water cycle through transpiration, simultaneously cooling the home Grey water that otherwise discarded becomes a source of food/energy (waste = resource/energy)
  • Hundertwasser, austrian artist-naturist, calls for prefigures and planting of trees in houses: vegetation through the window, as a factor of health & hygiene, the anti-pollutant par excellence, also as a factor involving the inhabitant Where concrete and tarmac prevent water from infiltrating, the tree tenants helped to balance the situation by introducing foliage to the floors of a building, purify the air and water, thus paid for the rent In the manifesto “the sacred shit” he wrote, “shit turns into earth which is put on the roof - it becomes lawn, forest, garden - shit becomes gold… the circle is closed, there is no more waste” (1975)
  • The design process Waste minimization should be addressed through questioning and review of the design and construction process at regular intervals. Opportunities in design development to reduce waste include: Putting waste on the agenda Design change management Preventing the need to change design Designing with existing resources Designing for site conditions
  • Chartwell School
  • Tongue, grooves and chamfers are easily damaged during removal Simple rectangular cross section most value after looking at sliding profiles n % of material recovery
  • Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) Combines roof sheathing, insulations and ceiling finishes in 1 component Can be removed and used as whole components
  • Industrial Symbiosis

    1. 1. Industrial Symbiosis
    2. 2. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment
    3. 3. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in.dus.tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process
    4. 4. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in.dus.tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis place-based exchanges among different entities that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
    5. 5. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis place-based exchanges among different entities that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
    6. 6. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis engages different traditionally unrelated industries in physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and by-products that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
    7. 7. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis engages different traditionally unrelated industries in physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and by-products that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
    8. 8. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process eco-industrial clusters eco-industrial park zero-emission park eco-industrial clusters
    9. 9. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process eco-industrial clusters eco-industrial park zero-emission park eco-industrial clusters symbiosis need not occur within the strict boundaries of a park
    10. 10. Illustrating the concepts and issues of industrial symbiosis
    11. 11. EMBEDDED ENERGY AND MATERIALS EMBEDDED ENERGY = SUM OF ‘HIDDEN’ RESOURCES TO MAKE PRODUCT POSSIBLE EXAMPLES OF ‘HIDDEN’ RESOURCES: - RESOURCES USED IN THE EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIAL - PRIMARY / SECONDARY MANUFACTURING - TRANSPORTATION REUSING BY-PRODUCTS ALLOWS THE EMBEDDED ENERGY CONSUMED TO GO FURTHER ELEMENTS EMBEDDED ENERGY LOST EMBEDDED ENERGY PRESERVED
    12. 12. LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE VIRGIN MATERIAL ‘ FINISHED’ MATERIAL COMPONENT PRODUCT OBSOLETE PRODUCT ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TRACK THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES TO OPTIMIZE TOTAL MATERIALS CYCLE ALLOWS FOR CONSIDERATION OF ENTIRE SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AT EACH STAGE OF MANUFACTURING ELEMENTS
    13. 13. CASCADING FRESH / POTABLE WATER EXTRACTED WATER USED TO WASH RICE AT PLANT ‘ CLOUDY WATER’ USED TO IRRIGATE LAND RESOURCE USED REPEATEDLY IN DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS CHANGE IN THE GRADE OF THE RESOURCE CASCADE ENDS WHEN RESOURCE IS DISCARDED OR REQUIRES ALOT OF ENERGY TO REINSTATE ITS VALUE IMPACT: REDUCED USE OF VIRGIN RESOURCES REDUCED DEPOSITION OF WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENT ELEMENTS
    14. 14. LOOP CLOSING IMPACT: REDUCED USE OF VIRGIN RESOURCES REDUCED DEPOSITION OF WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENT THE RETURN OF A MATERIAL TO A FORM SIMILAR TO ITS PREVIOUS FORM BOTTLE CRUSHED INTO CULLETS, MELTED AND REMOULDED INTO A GLASS CONTAINER AGAIN DIRECT WASH-OUT OF USED GLASS BOTTLES TO BE RE-USED ELEMENTS
    15. 15. TRACKING MATERIAL FLOW AUDITING THE TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF MATERIAL, WATER AND ENERGY FLOWS OF OPERATIONS FIRMS ARE CLEARLY DEFINED BY THEIR RATE OF INPUTS AND OUTPUTS THE AMOUNT OF FEEDSTOCKS AND BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE SOURCED FROM AND CIRCULATED WITHIN THE INDUSTRY LONGER RESPECTIVELY SYNERGISTIC INDUSTRY WOULD BE CONSOLIDATING THE PROCESSES WITHIN THE INDUSTRY, ERGO USING LESS RESOURCES FROM THE PLANET AND PRODUCING LESS ‘ULTIMATE DISPOSAL’ WASTE ISSUES
    16. 16. LIMITATIONS OF MATERIAL PROFILES MODELLED FROM SOFTWARES DEVELOPED TO DETERMINE THE FLUX OF PROCESSES, IT OVEREMPHASIZES IDEALIZED CONDITIONS; <ul><li>LITTLE RECOGNITION OF TIME-CONSUMING PROCESSES THAT IS BUSINESS DEALINGS </li></ul><ul><li>MOST INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENTIONALLY CREATED FOR REUSE </li></ul><ul><li>(MATCHING OUTPUTS TO FEEDSTOCK REQUIREMENTS SHOULD INCLUDE AN ANALYSIS OF THE GRADE OF THE ENTITIES) </li></ul>ISSUES
    17. 17. STAKEHOLDER PROCESSES PLAYERS GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS CHARETTE SUCESSFUL INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS SHOULD BE TAILORED TO A CERTAIN COMMUNITY OF ADAPTED TO A CONTEXT (DEPENDING ON THE COOPERATIVE OF PLAYERS) PROFITS REGULATIONS SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES
    18. 18. Spatial scales of industrial symbiosis
    19. 19. Types of Spatial Scales <ul><li>Type 1: Through Waste Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2: Within Facility, Firm or Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Type 3: Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park </li></ul><ul><li>Type 4: Among Local Firms that are NOT Colocated </li></ul><ul><li>Type 5: Among Firms Organized Virtually across a Broader Region </li></ul>
    20. 20. Through Waste Exchange Organization A Organization C A’s Waste C’s waste <ul><li>Exchange done through trade by trade basis </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of material more than water or energy </li></ul>Organization B B’s Need A’s Need
    21. 21. Within a Facility, Firm, or Organization <ul><li>Materials exchange inside the boundaries of 1 large organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Gains by organization by upstream operation like purchasing and processing </li></ul>department department organization materials department department
    22. 22. Sugar refinery Sugar Molasses Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    23. 23. Sugar refinery Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    24. 24. Sugar refinery Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Compound Fertilizer Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    25. 25. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Paper Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Black liquor Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    26. 26. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    27. 27. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    28. 28. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Cement mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Cement NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
    29. 29. Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park <ul><li>Share information and services other than energy, water and materials within the boundaries of the eco industrial park </li></ul><ul><li>Common to involve other partners over the fence </li></ul>
    30. 30. Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park Eco industrial park
    31. 31. Kalunborg example where primary partners are roughly within a 2mile radius Among Local Firms That are NOT Colocated <2miles
    32. 32. <ul><li>Place based enterprises to reduce cost of moving and other critical variables </li></ul><ul><li>More firms participating = larger by-product exchange </li></ul>Among Firms organized Virtually across a Broader Region
    33. 33. Considering the life-cycle of a building
    34. 34. Industrial symbiosis in the process of building construction
    35. 35. WASTE INTO ENERGY. WASTE INTO RESOURCE. SYMBIOSIS STRATEGIES AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
    36. 36. NON HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE FROM CONSTRUCTION, DEMOLITION AND LANDCLEARING ACTIVITIES WHAT IS CONSTRUCTION WASTE
    37. 37. CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION IS FED WITH FEEDSTOCK THAT IS ALMOST ALWAYS DERIVED FROM VIRGIN MATERIALS SYMBIOSIS WOULD MEAN USING MATERIALS ‘EXISITING IN THE INDUSTRIES OUT THERE’ AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE AND PLANNING FOR ITS POSSIBLE AFTERLIFE IN ANOTHER INDUSTRY <ul><li>SELECTING MATERIALS WITH AN UNDERSTANDING OF ITS </li></ul><ul><li>- EMBEDDED ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT) </li></ul>BUILDING ELEMENT: INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION PANELS (COMPOSITE WOOD BOARDS) SYMBIOSIS STRATEGIES AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
    38. 38. KNOWING YOUR MATERIALS EMBEDDED ENERGY & METHOD OF MANUFACTURE AFTERLIFE PARTICLE BOARD MADE FROM WASTE WOOD FROM SAWMILLS HIGH DENSITY HARDBOARD (WOOD FIBREBOARD) MANUFACTURE PROCESS REQUIRES A LOT OF ENERGY; BUT DURABLE AND HIGH STRENGTH TO MATERIAL RATIO BOARD MADE FROM COMPRESSED NEWSPAPER REPLACING WOOD FIBREBOARD WOOD FIBREBOARD IS MADE FROM NEW WOOD; BOARD MADE FROM COMPRESSED NEWSPAPER IS MADE ENTIRELY FROM POST-CONSUMER WASTE PAPER GYPSUM SYNTHETIC GYPSUM & FIBRE GYPSUM – USES BY-PRODUCTS RECYCLED GYPSUM MAY BE USED AS SOLID CONDITIONER. 90% OF GYPSUM MAY BEA RECOVERED FROM CONSTRUCTION SCRAP
    39. 39. THE CARPET COLLECTED AS A ‘DISCARDED RESOURCE’ (SURPLUS CARPET TILES) REUSED UNCONVENTIONALLY; STACKED TO CREATE THE WALLS OF THE HOUSE CASE STUDY: LUCY’S HOUSE (SAMUEL MOCKBEE’S CARPET HOUSE)
    40. 40. Symbiosis with nature during occupancy
    41. 41. Fab Tree Hab Local Biota Living Graft Structure by Mitchell Joachim, Javier Arbona and Lara Greden (2003)
    42. 42. Fab Tree Hab An Edible Prefab Home for Humanity primary structural growth stages: unfolding each 5 year period by Mitchell Joachim, Javier Arbona and Lara Greden
    43. 43. Fab Tree Hab Life Sustaining Flow Plan of  Water Cycle: 1. Washer,  2. Tub,  3. Sink,  4.Toilet,  5. Living-Machine Link,  6. Garden,  7. Pond. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    44. 44. Hundertwasserhaus, Wien (1983) In the manifesto “the sacred shit” hundertwasser wrote, “shit turns into earth which is put on the roof - it becomes lawn, forest, garden - shit becomes gold… the circle is closed, there is no more waste ” (1975)
    45. 45. Case Study Tripod: Plug and Play Housing Designing for Deconstruction
    46. 46. Design for Deconstruction Understanding the true Life Cycle Analysis before designing DfD Specialized team to Design for Deconstruction Construction/ Occupancy Deconstruction Maintain, Repair, Renovate Adaptive reuse waste industries Energy/incineration Nature landfill Greenmark Disassembly company Net waste tool reuse recycle refining process
    47. 47. Case Study: Design for Deconstruction
    48. 48. Case Study:
    49. 49. Case Study:
    50. 50. Case Study:
    51. 51. Case Study:
    52. 52. Case Study:
    53. 53. Case Study: Connection details Eb-Ty fasterner system Double bend clip
    54. 54. Case Study: Construction details
    55. 55. Future development

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