AVERAGE SOLAR RADIATION (INSOLATION) ACROSS THE WORLD SEC has extensively researched the energy infrastructure along the border area between Victoria and NSW, as well as other areas of the country with very high solar insolation.
Green house effect Like other resources, heat can be recycled. This natural reuse and retention of atmospheric heat is called the greenhouse effect . Certain heat-retaining gases—called greenhouse gases—such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone are the primary molecules that retain this heat in the air. Here’s how the basic process works. Solar energy that strikes our planet’s surface warms the ground. As the ground cools, heat is released to the atmosphere through conduction and convection. This is called sensible heat . Greenhouse gases readily absorb this energy, preventing its immediate release back into space. Also, when liquid water on Earth absorbs energy and changes state to water vapor, energy called latent heat energy is carried into the atmosphere. As you would expect, all of this retained heat warms the atmosphere. In a balanced state, the amount of solar energy striking our planet will equal the amount released back into space. Thus with a stable greenhouse effect, our global temperature should remain elevated, but steady. In fact, some scientists report that the greenhouse effect has produced an environment about 35°C (63°F) warmer than it would be if there were no heat recycling.
For thermal equilibrium the reradiated power must also be 342 watts/m2. Kiehl & Trenberth's re-radiated power Reflected sunlight 107 watts/m2 or 107/342 = 31% Long wavelength (IR) radiation 235 watts/m2, 235/342=69%
25% from 1 level to another
ZEV·NET is a research program designed to provide convenient environmentally sensitive transportation alternatives to commuters for traveling to work, daytime meetings and appointments. The acronym “ZEV·NET” stands for Zero Emission Vehicle· Network Enabled Transport and represents the program’s use of electric vehicles that are equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in conjunction with scheduling software so that the vehicles can be efficiently shared among commuters. ZEV· NET is a not-for-profit venture that includes a research component. Its purpose is to: Develop relevant information technologies and to facilitate standardized protocols and procedures; Create a model that best serves the commuting public and corporate business sector; Integrate station cars with photovoltaic (solar) panels and stationary fuel cells in order to establish a truly zero-emission transportation strategy; and Establish a test bed for intelligent transportation system sensors and information technology.
Why Zero Emmision? water - recycled (save the energy costs of desalination) garbage (sorted and recycled) Vacuum tubes under the city transport garbage to a central location. (can't recycled) Converted to energy through a gasification process and the leftovers incorporated into building materials Sewage treated processed into a dry renewable fuel for generating electricity CO2 deliver power to nearby Abu Dhabi city zero net carbon dioxide emissions cuz still use power from plant at nite Transport subtract cars (PRT) Reduce electricity self shading &quot;skins&quot; of copper foil that reflect light and conduct heat away from the buildings (self cleaning) PV, Geothermal, waste Oberlin College's Lewis Center features many of the same elements of energy-efficient design: thick insulation, natural ventilation with heat exchangers, plenty of windows to offset the need for electric lighting, and heat pumps rather than conventional furnaces. A 60-kilowatt array of solar panels on its roof was supposed to produce as much electricity over the course of a year as the building consumes. Yet the building initially used too much energy, and the solar panels were not adequate. To achieve zero net energy, the college had to install an extra solar array nearby, more than tripling the total power production. It added over a million dollars to an already expensive building, estimates John Scofield, a physics professor at Oberlin who has published a detailed analysis of the building's performance. http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/22121/page3/
Energy Conversion and Emmisions
This is what it looks like when multi-crystaline solar cells create energy from sunlight. Photograph: John Moore/Getty Images Energy Conversion
Red shows the regions that receive the most sun, such as the middle of the Pacific Ocean and the Sahara Desert in Niger, followed by orange, yellow, green, blue, purple and pink. Australia gleams a bright red on the Solenco NASA map based upon data collected by US and European satellites. After growing 19% in 2006 and 62% in 2007 , world solar photovoltaic ( PV ) market installations exploded by 110% to a staggering 5.95 GW. Europe accounted for 82% of world demand in 2008. Spain’s 285% growth pushed Germany into second place in the market ranking, while the US advanced to [a very distant] number three. Rapid growth in Korea allowed it to become the fourth largest market, closely followed by Italy and Japan. China and Taiwan continued to increase their share of global solar cell production, rising to 44% in 2008 from 35% in 2007. Global
Producers absorb 1% of the total solar energy. Consumers eat producers and retain 10% of the energy (gained from food) taken from producers, rest energy is lost as heat and in metabolic reactions. So 10% of the energy from one trophic level is always transferred to next trophic level. This is called as ‘10% rule’ for utilization of energy. Life Cycle
Life Cycle Range of 10 to 25% energy transferred from 1 level to another