Respiratory System <ul><li>Main function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports  GASES  to and from the circulatory system </li>...
Parts of the Respiratory System
1. Nasal Cavity
2. Oral Cavity
3. Pharynx  <ul><li>Cavity at the back of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis is located in the pharynx </li></ul>
4. Epiglottis <ul><li>Thin flexible cartilage structure </li></ul><ul><li>Guards the entrance to the larynx </li></ul><ul>...
5. Larynx <ul><li>Voice box (Glottis)  </li></ul><ul><li>Contains vocal cords </li></ul>
6. Trachea <ul><li>Cartilage rings </li></ul><ul><li>Windpipe </li></ul>
7. Bronchi <ul><li>Made of up of smooth muscle & cartilage </li></ul>
8. Bronchioles <ul><li>Same structure  and function  as bronchi,  BUT smaller </li></ul>
9. Alveoli <ul><li>Air sacs  </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny pouches  surrounded  by capillaries  where gases  are exchanged </li><...
 
Cilia and Mucus <ul><li>Air filtered by cilia  </li></ul><ul><li>Warmed & moistened  by mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the ...
Trachea <ul><li>Cilia will move  debris up to trachea  opening where the  material will end up  in the esophagus  & will b...
Breathing
Inspiration/Inhalation <ul><li>Diaphragm  CONTRACTS  – “Down” position </li></ul><ul><li>Chest expands and enlarges </li><...
Expiration/Exhalation <ul><li>Diaphragm  RELAXES  - “Up” position  </li></ul><ul><li>Chest relaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs ...
 
 
Animation of Breathing
Respiratory control
Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Located in the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Controls respiratory rate  </li></ul><ul><li>Detects...
Diaphragm <ul><li>Respiratory muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the  VOLUME  of the  ...
Gas Exchange
Gas exchange <ul><li>External gas exchange  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between the  ATMOSPHERE  and the  BLOOD </li></ul></ul><...
 
General Process of  Gas Exchange
 
 
Gas Transport
Oxygen <ul><li>A small amount of oxygen in gas form dissolves in the  BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Most oxygen is carried by  H...
Carbon dioxide <ul><li>A small amount of carbon dioxide in gas form dissolves in the  BLOOD  (8%) </li></ul><ul><li>25% - ...
Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>67% converted to  BICARBONATE  ions which dissolve in the  PLASMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells -  Ca...
CO 2  release to lungs
CO 2  pick up by RBC
Body and Breathing Activity
Bronchitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the air passages of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from a respiratory infection s...
Asthma <ul><li>Narrowing of the bronchi making breathing difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheez...
 
Emphysema <ul><li>Damage to the tiny air sacs in your lungs (alveoli)  </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause you to feel short of br...
Carbon dioxide <ul><li>CO 2  produced by cellular respiration leaves the  CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2  enters the  BLOOD ...
Oxygen <ul><li>Inhale O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2  crosses the  ALVEOLAR  wall by  DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>O 2  enters t...
 
Transport of Gases in Blood <ul><li>Oxygen is mainly transported bound to hemoglobin though a small amount will dissolve i...
 
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Respiratory system moodle

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Respiratory system moodle

  1. 1. Respiratory System <ul><li>Main function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports GASES to and from the circulatory system </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Parts of the Respiratory System
  3. 3. 1. Nasal Cavity
  4. 4. 2. Oral Cavity
  5. 5. 3. Pharynx <ul><li>Cavity at the back of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis is located in the pharynx </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4. Epiglottis <ul><li>Thin flexible cartilage structure </li></ul><ul><li>Guards the entrance to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents food material from entering the trachea during swallowing </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5. Larynx <ul><li>Voice box (Glottis) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains vocal cords </li></ul>
  8. 8. 6. Trachea <ul><li>Cartilage rings </li></ul><ul><li>Windpipe </li></ul>
  9. 9. 7. Bronchi <ul><li>Made of up of smooth muscle & cartilage </li></ul>
  10. 10. 8. Bronchioles <ul><li>Same structure and function as bronchi, BUT smaller </li></ul>
  11. 11. 9. Alveoli <ul><li>Air sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny pouches surrounded by capillaries where gases are exchanged </li></ul>
  12. 13. Cilia and Mucus <ul><li>Air filtered by cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Warmed & moistened by mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles </li></ul>
  13. 14. Trachea <ul><li>Cilia will move debris up to trachea opening where the material will end up in the esophagus & will be swallowed. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Breathing
  15. 16. Inspiration/Inhalation <ul><li>Diaphragm CONTRACTS – “Down” position </li></ul><ul><li>Chest expands and enlarges </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs are PUSHED UP and OUT </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic cavity INCREASES </li></ul><ul><li>More pressure outside than inside the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Allow air INTO the lungs </li></ul>
  16. 17. Expiration/Exhalation <ul><li>Diaphragm RELAXES - “Up” position </li></ul><ul><li>Chest relaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs ARE IN and DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic cavity DECREASES , therefore pushes air OUT of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>More pressure inside the lungs than outside of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Air is pushed </li></ul>
  17. 20. Animation of Breathing
  18. 21. Respiratory control
  19. 22. Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Located in the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Controls respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Detects CO 2 levels in the blood </li></ul>
  20. 23. Diaphragm <ul><li>Respiratory muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the VOLUME of the thoracic cavity </li></ul>
  21. 24. Gas Exchange
  22. 25. Gas exchange <ul><li>External gas exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between the ATMOSPHERE and the BLOOD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal gas exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the BLOOD/CAPILLARY and the CELLS. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. General Process of Gas Exchange
  24. 30. Gas Transport
  25. 31. Oxygen <ul><li>A small amount of oxygen in gas form dissolves in the BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Most oxygen is carried by HEMOGLOBIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs: Hemoglobin picks up oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hb + O 2  HbO 2 (oxyhemoglobin) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells: Hemoglobin drops off oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HbO 2  Hb + O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 32. Carbon dioxide <ul><li>A small amount of carbon dioxide in gas form dissolves in the BLOOD (8%) </li></ul><ul><li>25% - carried by the HEMOGLOBIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs: Hemoglobin drops off carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HbCO 2  Hb + CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells: Hemoglobin picks up carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hb + CO 2  HbCO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 33. Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>67% converted to BICARBONATE ions which dissolve in the PLASMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells - Carbon dioxide gets picked up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3 - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbonic acid bicarbonate ion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs - Carbon dioxide gets dropped off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H + + HCO 3 -  H 2 CO 3  CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> bicarbonate ion carbonic acid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 34. CO 2 release to lungs
  29. 35. CO 2 pick up by RBC
  30. 36. Body and Breathing Activity
  31. 37. Bronchitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the air passages of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from a respiratory infection such as a cold </li></ul><ul><li>Mucous lining become irritated/swollen </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing is a reflex to clear secretions </li></ul>
  32. 38. Asthma <ul><li>Narrowing of the bronchi making breathing difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheezing, difficulty breathing (particularly exhaling air), tightness in the chest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irritants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid changes in temperature or humidity, allergies, upper respiratory infections, exercise, stress, or smoke (cigarette) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 40. Emphysema <ul><li>Damage to the tiny air sacs in your lungs (alveoli) </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause you to feel short of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking is the major cause of emphysema, accounting for more than 80 percent of all cases </li></ul>
  34. 41. Carbon dioxide <ul><li>CO 2 produced by cellular respiration leaves the CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 enters the BLOOD VESSELS (veins) </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 enters the CAPILLARIES IN LUNGS </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 crosses the ALVEOLAR wall by DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Exhale air </li></ul>
  35. 42. Oxygen <ul><li>Inhale O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 crosses the ALVEOLAR wall by DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 enters the CAPILLARIES IN LUNGS </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 enters the BLOOD VESSELS (arteries) </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 travels to the CELLS to be used in cellular respiration </li></ul>
  36. 44. Transport of Gases in Blood <ul><li>Oxygen is mainly transported bound to hemoglobin though a small amount will dissolve in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Some carbon dioxide is transported bound to hemoglobin and some dissolves in plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Most carbon dioxide molecules are transported in the form of bicarbonate ions </li></ul><ul><li>Once in the lungs, the bicarbonate ions are converted back to carbon dioxide </li></ul>
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