Respiration
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  • 1. Overview of Respiration
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP
    • Glucose is highly reduced; contains energy
    • Oxygen receives the electrons to form energy
    • Reactions
      • Glycolysis, Transition Reaction, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport, Chemiosmosis
    • Requires Oxygen
  • 2.  
  • 3. Mitochondrial Structure Matrix Inner Membrane Intermembrane Space Cristae Outer Membrane
  • 4. Two main types of energy releasing pathways
    • Aerobic respiration - occurring in the presence of of free oxygen
      • About 50% efficient
      • Yields about 38 ATPs
    • Anaerobic respiration - occurring without free oxygen
      • About 2% efficient
      • Yields 2 ATP
    a.
  • 5. Overview of Processes
    • Glycolysis - breakdown of glucose (6C) into two molecules of pyruvate (3C)
    • Krebs cycle - degrades pyruvate to carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions (H+), and electrons (e-)
    • Electron transport chain - processes H+ and e- to generate high yields of ATP
  • 6. All energy-releasing pathways start with glycolysis
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm without the use of oxygen
    • Glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules
  • 7. Glycolysis
    • Occurs in the cytosol outside of mitochondria
    • “ Splitting of sugar”
    • Oxygen is the final electron acceptor
    • Two phases (10 steps):
      • Energy investment phase
        • Preparatory phase (first 5 steps)
        • Pays with ATP
      • Energy yielding phase
        • Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps)
        • Net gain of ATP and NADH
  • 8.  
  • 9. Energy Investment Phase
  • 10. Energy Yielding Phase
  • 11. Substrate Level Phosphorylation Mode of ATP Synthesis Substrate Phosphorylation Enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
  • 12.
    • ATP made by direct enzymatic transfer of phosphate group from a substrate to ADP
  • 13. Animation of Glycolysis http://henge.bio.miami.edu/mallery/movies/glycolysis.mov University of Virginia
  • 14. Fermentation
    • Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic)
    • Breakdown of glucose in which organic compounds are the final electron acceptors
      • Reduction of pyruvic acid
        • Gains e- and H+ from NADH
    • Two Types:
      • Alcohol Fermentation
      • Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • 15. Alcohol Fermentation
    • Pyruvate forms carbon dioxide & ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
    • Plants and Fungi
      • Used in baking and to produce alcoholic beverages
    • End Products
      • 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 2 CO 2
      • 2 Ethanol
  • 16. Alcohol Fermentation
  • 17. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Pyruvate converted to lactate (lactic acid)
    • Animals
      • Used to produce food products, such as cheese, yogurt, sauerkraut
      • Can occur in human muscle cells – sore muscles
    • End Products:
      • 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 2 Lactic Acid
  • 18. Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • 19. Fermentation
    • ALCOHOLIC
    • Plants
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • Produces:
      • 2 alcohol
      • 2 CO2
      • 2 NAD+
    • Makes no ATP, only made in glycolysis
    • LACTIC ACID
    • Animals
    • Occurs in cytoplasm
    • Produces:
      • 2 lactic acid
      • no CO2
      • 2 NAD+
    • No ATP made here, only made in glycolysis
    • Causes muscle fatigue
  • 20.  
  • 21. Pyruvic Acid  Acetyl - Co A + CO 2 + NADH
  • 22. Transition Reaction
    • Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
    • Occurs only in presence of oxygen
    • Pyruvate (3C) is stripped of carbon, producing acetate (2C) and releasing CO 2
      • One molecule of CO 2 is released from each pyruvic acid
    • NAD + is reduced to NADH
      • NAD+ picks up 2 e- and a H+
    • Acetate couples with Coenzyme A to form Acetyl-CoA
  • 23. Pyruvic Acid  Acetyl - Co A + CO 2 + NADH
  • 24. Transition Reaction: Pyruvic acid Conversion
    • Made per glucose molecule (2 pyruvic acids)
      • 2 NADH
      • 2 CO 2
      • 2 acetyl CoA
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. Krebs Cycle
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • TCA cycle (Tricarboxylic acid)
    • Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
    • Nothing left of the original glucose except CO 2 and H+ and e- of the energy carriers
  • 28.
    • Acetyl-CoA (2C) combines with oxaloacetate (4C) to form citrate (citric acid) (6C)
    • Loss of CO 2 and electrons occur
    • Citrate is cycled back to OAA (oxaloacetate)
    • NAD+ & FAD pick up e- & H+
    • ATP’s are formed
    • Glucose is completely oxidized in the end
    • Oxygen must be present, but not part of the reactions
    Krebs Cycle oxaloacetate malate citrate isocitrate  -ketogluterate fumarate succinate CoA succinyl–CoA ATP NADH NADH NADH NADH FADH 2 NAD + NAD + FAD NAD + CoA CoA H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O ADP + phosphate group (from GTP) pyruvate NAD + CoA Acetyl–CoA coenzyme A (CoA) (CO 2 )
  • 29. Must cycle twice to use up the 2 acetyl CoA produced in the mitochondrial matrix.
    • End products
      • 2 ATP
      • 4 CO 2
      • 6 NADH
      • 2 FADH 2
  • 30. Krebs Cycle Animation
  • 31.  
  • 32. Electron Transport Chain
    • Occurs in the cristae (inner membrane)
    • Receives energy from NADH & FADH 2
    • Recycles NAD+ & FAD
    • Creates H+ gradient across the inner membrane (used by chemiosmosis)
      • High H+ in the intermembrane
      • Low H+ in the matrix
    • Oxygen, then, acts as the final e- acceptor & water is produced
    • ATP is not directly produced by the ETC; it is coupled with chemiosmosis
  • 33. Establishing Proton Gradient
    • NADH, FADH 2 are oxidized
    • Passes through embedded molecules
      • FMN (Flavoprotein)
      • Fe • S (Iron-sulfur protein)
      • Q (Ubiquinone-Lipid carrier)
      • Cytochromes
    • H+ pumped out of matrix
    • O 2 acts as final e- acceptor
      • Picks up e- & H+ to produce H 2 O
  • 34.  
  • 35. Mode of ATP Synthesis Substrate Phosphorylation Enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzymes result in the transfer of electrons to O 2 . This transfer of energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with free P i .
  • 36. Chemiosmosis
    • Coupled with ETC, can produce 32-34 ATP
    • H+ pass from the intermembrane space into the mitochrondrial matrix creates a proton-motive force, powering a “molecular mill”
    • This “mill” is the ATP synthase protein complex, used to create ATP
      • For every NADH molecule – 3 ATP
      • For every FADH 2 molecule – 2 ATP
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Electron Carriers
    • 2 NADH produced in glycolysis
    • 2 NADH produced during acetyl CoA formation
    • 6 NADH produced in Krebs Cycle
    • 10 NADH  30 ATP
    • 2 FADH2, produced in Krebs Cycle
    • 2 FADH 2  4 ATP
  • 41. Electron Transport Chain Animation
  • 42. Aerobic Respiration Overview Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Glucose Plasma membrane Extracellular fluid Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Pyruvate Glycolysis ATP NADH ATP H 2 O O 2 Electron transport system ATP NADH CO 2 Krebs cycle NADH Acetyl-CoA
  • 43. Krebs Cycle NADH NADH NADH ATP ATP ATP ATP ADP + P i INNER COMPARTMENT OUTER COMPARTMENT acetyl-CoA free oxygen 6 H + flows back into inner compartment, through ATP synthases. Flow drives ATP formation. 1 Pyruvate from cytoplasm enters inner mitochondrial compartment. 3 NADH and FADH 2 give up electrons and H + to electron transfer chains. 2 Krebs cycle and preparatory steps: NAD + and FADH 2 accept electrons and hydrogen. ATP forms. Carbon dioxide forms. 5 Oxygen accepts electrons, joins with H + to form water. 4 As electrons move through the transfer chains, H + is pumped to outer compartment.
  • 44.  
  • 45. Overall Respiration Summary
    • Net ATP production from cellular respiration
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • (Includes Glycolysis = 2 ATP)
      • Fermentation = 0 ATP
      • Total = 2 ATP
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • (Includes Glycolysis = 2ATP)
      • Kreb’s Cycle = 2 ATP
      • Electron Transport = 34ATP
      • Total = 38 ATP
  • 46.