Moodle homeostasis notes
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Moodle homeostasis notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Passive vs. Active Transport
  • 2. Characteristics needed for transport1. Size of the molecule2. Chemical structure of the molecule – Charge and shape1. Concentration of the molecule2. Role played by the molecule
  • 3. Passive Transport• Does not require energy (ATP)• Molecules always move from an area of high concentration to low concentration• Movement goes along with the concentration gradient
  • 4. Passive Transport Examples• Simple Diffusion – Includes osmosis – Small molecules – Lipid soluble particles – Examples • Oxygen • Carbon dioxide • Water
  • 5. Passive Transport Examples• Facilitated Diffusion – Assistance in crossing the membrane • Bigger molecules • Not lipid soluble particles – Specific carrier proteins • Help molecules cross the membrane • Examples – Glucose – Other simple sugars
  • 6. Facilitated Diffusion Diagram
  • 7. Passive Transport Simple Facilitated Diffusion DiffusionFacilitated Diffusion diffuses molecules faster thansimple diffusion.
  • 8. Passive Transport Examples• Ion Channels – Specific channels allows ion cross the membrane – Open vs. Gated – Examples • Ions – Calcium (Ca2+), Chloride (Cl-), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+)
  • 9. Ion Channels
  • 10. Active Transport• Does require energy• Molecules usually move from an area of low concentration to high concentration• Movement goes AGAINST the concentration gradient
  • 11. Active Transport Examples• Cell membrane pump – Sodium-potassium pump – Carrier protein pump – Carries ions against the concentration gradient – Must “change shape” to function
  • 12. Sodium-potassium pump• 3 Na+ are pumped outside the cell• 2 K+ are pumped inside the cell• Creates a net positive charge outside the cell membrane• Animation ( http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/animations/ion_pump/ionpump.html )• Needed for cell to function – Nerve impulse
  • 13. Bulk Transport• Large molecules – Too big to pass through the cell membrane – Molecules will “break through” by forming a vesicle by either taking a piece of the membrane away or adding a piece back onto the membrane
  • 14. Bulk Transport• Endocytosis – Substances is allowed into the cell – Phagocytosis • Macromolecules, whole cells or organisms • Solids – Pinocytosis • Fluids and solutes
  • 15. Bulk Transport• Exocytosis – Substances leaving the cell• Overall picture
  • 16. Membrane Transport Passive Transport Active TransportSimple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Pumps Water Protein channels CotransportNon-polar molecules Large Molecules Certain Ions Endocytosis Exocytosis Pinocytosis Phagocytosis