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Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
Moodle homeostasis notes
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Moodle homeostasis notes

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  • 1. Passive vs. Active Transport
  • 2. Characteristics needed for transport1. Size of the molecule2. Chemical structure of the molecule – Charge and shape1. Concentration of the molecule2. Role played by the molecule
  • 3. Passive Transport• Does not require energy (ATP)• Molecules always move from an area of high concentration to low concentration• Movement goes along with the concentration gradient
  • 4. Passive Transport Examples• Simple Diffusion – Includes osmosis – Small molecules – Lipid soluble particles – Examples • Oxygen • Carbon dioxide • Water
  • 5. Passive Transport Examples• Facilitated Diffusion – Assistance in crossing the membrane • Bigger molecules • Not lipid soluble particles – Specific carrier proteins • Help molecules cross the membrane • Examples – Glucose – Other simple sugars
  • 6. Facilitated Diffusion Diagram
  • 7. Passive Transport Simple Facilitated Diffusion DiffusionFacilitated Diffusion diffuses molecules faster thansimple diffusion.
  • 8. Passive Transport Examples• Ion Channels – Specific channels allows ion cross the membrane – Open vs. Gated – Examples • Ions – Calcium (Ca2+), Chloride (Cl-), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+)
  • 9. Ion Channels
  • 10. Active Transport• Does require energy• Molecules usually move from an area of low concentration to high concentration• Movement goes AGAINST the concentration gradient
  • 11. Active Transport Examples• Cell membrane pump – Sodium-potassium pump – Carrier protein pump – Carries ions against the concentration gradient – Must “change shape” to function
  • 12. Sodium-potassium pump• 3 Na+ are pumped outside the cell• 2 K+ are pumped inside the cell• Creates a net positive charge outside the cell membrane• Animation ( http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/animations/ion_pump/ionpump.html )• Needed for cell to function – Nerve impulse
  • 13. Bulk Transport• Large molecules – Too big to pass through the cell membrane – Molecules will “break through” by forming a vesicle by either taking a piece of the membrane away or adding a piece back onto the membrane
  • 14. Bulk Transport• Endocytosis – Substances is allowed into the cell – Phagocytosis • Macromolecules, whole cells or organisms • Solids – Pinocytosis • Fluids and solutes
  • 15. Bulk Transport• Exocytosis – Substances leaving the cell• Overall picture
  • 16. Membrane Transport Passive Transport Active TransportSimple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Pumps Water Protein channels CotransportNon-polar molecules Large Molecules Certain Ions Endocytosis Exocytosis Pinocytosis Phagocytosis

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